TABLE OF FIGURES

Chapter 1: A View of the UAS Market

Figure 1-1 Consumer sUAS registration as of December 31, 2017
Figure 1-2 U.S. Postal Service Survey Results
Figure 1-3 State of Florida Drone Signage
Figure 1-4 Airspace Systems Interceptor autonomous aerial drone
Figure 1-5 Amazon Prime Air
Figure 1-6 Zipline drone testing package drop
Figure 1-7 Uber Elevate
Figure 1-8 Uber Flying Skies
Figure 1-9 Uber UAM Station Check-in
Figure 1-10 EHang 184 E-VTOL
Figure 1-11 Model X 2017
Figure 1-12 Nero temperature data collection
Figure 1-13 DJI Founder Frank Wang

Chapter 2: UAS Law – Legislation, Regulation and Adjudication

Figure 2-1 Tortoise and Hare
Figure 2-2 Ford Motor Company Production Plant
Figure 2-3 (National Safety News 1922)
Figure 2-4 Flights Everywhere
Figure 2-5 Jet Setting
Figure 2-6 Two 747 aircraft crashed on the runway
Figure 2-7 Boeing Company
Figure 2-8 Tragedy in Pacific South West, 1978
Figure 2-9 FAA Airspace Classification
Figure 2-10 Sample COA
Figure 2-11 Drone Crash into Commercial Airline
Figure 2-12 Scenario 1 Part 1
Figure 2-13 Scenario 1 Part 2
Figure 2-14 Scenario 2
Figure 2-15 No Trespassing
Figure 2-16 Three Mile Island

Chapter 3: Understanding Hostile Use and Cyber-Vulnerabilities of UAS: Components, Autonomy vs. Automation, Sensors, SAA, SCADA and Cyber Attack Taxonomy  

Figure 3-1 Drone Crash into 737-700 Passenger Jet While Landing at Mozambique
Figure 3-2 Self -Separation and Collision Volume
Figure 3-3 Decision Process to Avoid Collision of Two Aircraft
Figure 3-4 for Legacy SCADA System for Chemical Plant
Figure 3-5 for Corporate SCADA System
Figure 3-6 UAS SCADA System Internals
Figure 3-7 IT Systems vs. Control Systems

Chapter 4: INFOSEC – Protecting UAS Information Channels & Components

Figure 4-1 the Detection Timeline

Chapter 5: Intelligence & Red Teaming

Figure 5-1 the Intelligence Cycle

Chapter 7: UAS SAA Methodologies, Conflict Detection & Resolution Principles

Figure 7-1 Drone Survival Guide
Figure 7-2 SAR Imaging Geometry for Strip Mapping Option
Figure 7-3 SAR Modes of Operation
Figure 7-4 shows a TASE 500 that works with VIR, MWIR and LWIR cameras.
Figure 7-5 Drone Jammer Model KWT-FZQ used for Police interception.
Figure 7-6 Intruder Aircraft and SAA Decisions
Figure 7-7 TCAS II Terminology
Figure 7-8 TCAS II Conceptual Framework
Figure 7-9 TCASS II Cockpit View

Chapter 8: Designing UAS Systems for Stealth

Figure 8-1 EMS
Figure 8-2 EMS Functions
Figure 8-3 show the conversion for sound and acoustic wave period to frequency and back
Figure 8-4 shows the Sound EMS Regions
Figure 8-5 Equal Loudness Contours
Figure 8-6 EMS Reduced
Figure 8-7 Conversion Chart – Frequency to Wavelength Radio and Light Waves in a Vacuum
Figure 8-8 RADAR Frequency Bands
Figure 8-9 RADAR Bands
Figure 8-10 Path through Link
Figure 8-11 One – Way RADAR Equation
Figure 8-12 Two Way RADAR Equation (Bi-Static)

Chapter 9: Case Study Smart Skies Project

Figure 9-1 SSP Architecture
Figure 9-2 Cessna 172R Cockpit
Figure 9-3 Cessna 172R Flying View
Figure 9-4 ARCAA Flamingo UAS
Figure 9-5 ARCAA Heli UAS
Figure 9-6 MATS
Figure 9-7 ARCAA ASMS

Chapter 10: UAS Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

Figure 10-1 Boston Harbor, 1860, James Wallace Black
Figure 10-2 GoPro Camera Comparisons
Figure 10-3 Raytheon’s Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) for Predator MQ-1
Figure 10-4 Hyperspectral Imaging
Figure 10-5 Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) bands
Figure 10-6 SWIR advantage over old ISR sensors
Figure 10-7 for bomb sniffing logic for UAS
Figure 10-8 Importance of stabilized head
Figure 10-9 MIM Attack Effects

Chapter 11: UAS Weapons

Figure 11-1 BGM-34B
Figure 11-2 MQ-1 in the Smithsonian
Figure 11-3 MQ- 9 Reaper
Figure 11-4 Typical Reaper load out with the Hellfire missiles on the right and a GBU-12 on the left
Figure 11-5 Hellfire Weapon Engagement Zone
Figure 11-6 GBU-12 loaded on the Reaper UAS
Figure 11-7 Sample GBU-12 delivery envelope
Figure 11-8 GBU-38 left and GBU-54 right
Figure 11-9 MQ-9 Reaper with GBU-38 JDAMs loaded
Figure 11-10 GBU-39B/B
Figure 11-11 Active Denial System
Figure 11-12 Counter-electronics High-powered Microwave Advanced Missile
Figure 11-13 Portable Jammer
Figure 11-14 Drone launches a net to capture another drone

Chapter 12: UAS System Deployment and Information Dominance (ID)

Figure 12-1 UAS Surveillance Network
Figure 12-2 UAV Evolution
Figure 12-3 United States Coast Guard and Navy
Figure 12-5 sUAS Puma
Figure 12-6 United States Coast Guard UAS Concept

Chapter 13: Data Links Functions, Attributes and Latency

Figure 13-1 Mini Drones
Figure 13-2 Remote-Controlled Attack UAS, MQ-9
Figure 13-3 Data Links Overlay: Ground Station, Satellite, UAS
Figure 13-4 Partial EMS
Figure 13-5 LDCM Method Overlay
Figure 13-6 Harris KGV-72 encryption device for secure messages
Figure 13-7 Enemy Captured RQ-170
Figure 13-8 Spoofing the Spoofer
Figure 13-9 ARM Processes
Figure 13-10 BSR Representation
Figure 13-11 BSR Representation (alt)
Figure 13-12 US Army Warning Letter
Figure 13-13 Data Lifecycle of UAS
Figure 13-14 Flight Simulation Game
Figure 13-15 JTIDS View
Figure 13-16 Lightning Strike and Latency
Figure 13-17 Security – Latency Trade-off

Chapter 14: Exposing UAS Vulnerabilities via Electronic Warfare (EW) and Countering with Low Probability Intercept Signals (LPI)

Figure 14-1 Information Operations
Figure 14- 2 DOD JOPES
Figure 14-3 DOD Vision: Future of Internet with IW / IO integration
Figure 14-4 PCAS Vision: precise, digital, portable air-ground strike coordination
Figure 14-5 High -Level C4 Operational Concept Incorporating UAS
Figure 14-6 NASA’s Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace
Figure 14-7 Intelligence Cycle
Figure 14-8 shows the communication jamming geometry
Figure 14- 9 UAV Link Jamming Geometry
Figure 14-10 J/S Calculation Example
Figure 14-11 Chain Home Radar Stations Defending England
Figure 14-12 Chain Home Radar Station
Figure 14-13 Simple Radar Block Diagram
Figure 14-14 Simple Surveillance Radar
Figure 14-15 Spread Spectrum Signal
Figure 14-16 Cyber Electromagnetic Activities
Figure 14-17 CEA / CEW in the view of Total War

Chapter 15: Africa – World’s First Busiest Drone Operational Proving Ground – Where Counterterrorism and Modernization Meet   

Figure 15-1 Africa: Economics
Figure 15- 2 Islamic Militant Groups in Africa
Figure 15-3 Africa -Population Distribution
Figure 15-4 Africa: Primary Resources
Figure 15-5 Salafi-Jihad Movement
Figure 15-6 Terrorist Related Deaths in Africa
Figure 15-7 Hot Spot – Arc of Instability
Figure 15- 8 G5 Sahel – Five Africa States United
Figure 15-9 An Elbit Hermes 900 drone at Timbuktu Airport, Mali
Figure 15-10 United Nations Counterterrorism
Figure 15-11 France’s MQ-9
Figure 15-12 Thales Spy Arrow Drone
Figure 15-13 Hermes 900
Figure 15-14 Harfangs or “Eagle”
Figure 15-15 United States – West Africa
Figure 15-16 Guelmim Air Base
Figure 15-17 Seychelles International Airport
Figure 15-18 AFRICOM Base in Cameroon
Figure 15-19 A satellite image of the U.S. drone base in Garoua, Cameroon
Figure 15-20 China CH-5 Rainbow
Figure 15-21 US MQ-9
Figure 15-22 CAIG Wing Loong
Figure 15-23 Israel -East Africa CT efforts
Figure 15-24 LUNA Drone
Figure 15-25 Egypt – North Africa Satellite images from Nov 2016 show 4 Wing Loong drones
Figure 15-26 Chabelley Airfield Djibouti
Figure 15-27 China Navy Base – Horn of Africa nation
Figure 15-28 Italian Air Force’s Predator B UAS
Figure 15-29 Virginia Tech and Malawian Students

Chapter 16: Chinese Drones in Spratly Islands, and Chinese Threats to USA forces in Pacific

Figure 16-1 Spratly Islands
Figure 16-2 Spratly Islands
Figure 16-3 Chinese Dove Drone
Figure 16-4 S-100 Drone Trajectories in Spratly Islands
Figure 16-5 S-100 Chinese Drone
Figure 16-6 ASN-209 Chinese Drone
Figure 16-7 BZK -005 Chinese Drone
Figure 16-8 GJ-1 Chinese UCAV Drone (Armed)
Figure 16-9 GJ-1 Chinese UCAV Drone (Armed)
Figure 16-10 Chinese UAS Chinese Intelligence Assets Deployment in Spratlys
Figure 16-11 GPS Signals
Figure 16-12 CPA Algorithm
Figure 16-13 CPA Algorithm Details

Chapter 17: High – Altitude Platforms (HAPS) – A Promise not Reached

Figure 17-1 & 2 UAV-aided ubiquitous coverage with overloaded / malfunctioning base station and UAV-aided relaying
Figure 17-3 UAV – aided information dissemination and data collection
Figure 17-4 Basic HAPS networking architecture of UAV-aided wireless communications”
Figure 17-5 Subsystems of HAPS Stratosphere Segment
Figure 17-6 Schematic of a HAPS Link Budget [Corrected]

Chapter 18: C-UAS and Large-scale Threats

Figure 18-1 UAS Market Growth from 2018 to 2036
Figure 18-2 UAS Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) Market Analysis from 2018 to 2036
Figure 18-3 Unmanned Systems Funding by Service
Figure 18-4 UAS Market Size by Destructive Mitigation Type
Figure 18-5 UAS Market Growth Predictions by Civil Sector
Figure 18-6 Think Bigger: Large UAS and the Next Major Shift in Aviation
Figure 18-7 Defining Large UAS

Chapter 19: Audiology, Acoustic Countermeasures against Swarms and Building IFF Libraries

Figure 19-1 Inverse Square Law, Sound Intensity
Figure 19-2 Common decibel and Intensity levels within the hearing range
Figure 19-3 Tuning for Oscillations
Figure 19-4 Tuning fork oscillations over time
Figure 19-5 Patient D v-105 Hearing loss
Figure 19-6 Patient D v-105 Pitch v Loudness V Consonant Loss
Figure 19-7 Standing wave
Figure 19-8 MEMS Gyroscope

Chapter 20: Legal and Regulatory – Where it Was, where it is and what’s Ahead?

Figure 20-1 UK Predicted Uplift in GDP by 2030
Figure 20-2 Domestic UAS Regulatory Matrix
Figure 20-3 Radiant Earth 2018 Drone Regulation Statistics
Figure 20-4 Portion of the hierarchy involved in the legislative and regulatory process in the United States
Figure 20-5 Principles for Future Regulation
Figure 20-6 UAV Crash into LDS Church
Figure 20-7 Today Show Residential Drone Privacy
Figure 20-8 DJI Matrice 210 V2 With Zenmuse XT2 Thermal & Zenmuse Z30 Visual Cameras
Figure 20-9 No Drone Operation Rocky Mountains
Figure 20-10 DJI Public Safety Applications
Figure 20-11 Carrier HX8 Sprayer Drone Over FedEx Field

Chapter 21: Chinese UAS Proliferation along New Silk Road Sea/ Land routes

Figure 21-1: New Silk Road Economic Belt
Figure 21-2: Chongqing Freight Train
Figure 21-3: Type 55 Collection
Figure 21-4: Asia Pacific Gateway
Figure 21-5: EFY Technology Drones
Figure 21-6: Map of Countries in the Middle East with Armed Drones and their Manufacturing Origin

Chapter 22: Ethics in the New Age of Autonomous Systems and Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Figure 22-1 Humanoid Examines Homo Sapien
Figure 22-2 Intersection Decision
Figure 22-3 MIT AI Index 2018, Annual Report
Figure 22-4 Gender Disparity in the AI and Autonomous Systems Industry
Figure 22-5 Gender Disparity in AI Teaching Industry
Figure 22-6 Sophia
Figure 22-7 Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence
Figure 22-8 Self Driving Car and Braking Decision
Figure 22-9 SAE Automation Levels
Figure 22-10 Robot and Human Connecting

 

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Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain by R. K. Nichols, J.J.C.H. Ryan, H.C. Mumm, W.D. Lonstein, C. Carter, and J.P. Hood is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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