TABLE OF EQUATIONS

Chapter 3: Understanding Hostile Use and Cyber-Vulnerabilities of UAS: Components, Autonomy vs. Automation, Sensors, SAA, SCADA and Cyber Attack Taxonomy  

Eq. 3-1 Qualitative Information Systems Risk as a Function of Threats, Vulnerabilities, Impact, and Countermeasures
Eq. 3-2 Qualitative Information Systems Risk as a Function of Threats and Countermeasures at State = 0

Chapter 14: Exposing UAS Vulnerabilities via Electronic Warfare (EW) and Countering with Low Probability Intercept Signals (LPI)

Eq. 14-1 Formula for communication J/S
Eq. 14-2 Simplified J/S communications
Eq. 14-3 Amount of jammer power output required
Eq. 14-4 Radar Range Equation

Chapter 17: High – Altitude Platforms (HAPS) – A Promise not Reached

Eq. 17-1 Received signal power, CRX, f (PEIRP x gAR / LFS )
Eq. 17-2 Available noise power N, as a f (k x Ts x B)
Eq. 17-3 Receiving antenna noise temperature, T as a f (TAR + Te)
Eq. 17-4 Calculate C/N = PEIRP x g AR / k x Ts x B x LFS
Eq. 17-5 (C/N) dB = PEIRP – Ls – AR + (G /Ts) dB – 10 log (kB) [decibel form]
Eq. 17-6 The energy per bit is given by: Eb = C x Tb
Eq. 17-7 Rearranging: (C/N) = Eb /Tb / N0 x B = Eb x R / N0 x B
Eq. 17-8 Correcting for the energy / bit factor: Eb / N0 = PEIRP x gAR / k x Ts x R x LFS
Eq. 17-9 Carrier -to – noise spectral density ratio (C/N0) equation
Eq. 17-10 Converting Eq.17-9 to Eb / N0  is: (C/ N0) dB = (Eb / N0) dB + 10 log (R) and
Eq. 17-11 Uplink equation: (C/ N0) dB, UL = PEIRP, ES – LFS, UL – AR + (G /Ts) dB, HAPS, fom, / k   – kdB – R dB, UL
Eq. 17-12 Downlink equation: (C/ N0) dB, DL = PEIRP, HAPS – LFS, DL – AR + (G /Ts) dB, ES, fom, / k   – kdB – R dB, DL

Chapter 19: Audiology, Acoustic Countermeasures against Swarms and Building IFF Libraries

Eq. 19-1 General decibel formula in terms of power level (PL)
Eq. 19-2 General decibel formula in terms of power level (IL)
Eq. 19-3 General decibel formula for sound pressure level (SPL) with the corresponding values of pressure squared because (I ≈ p2).
Eq. 19-4 Convenient form of Eq. 19-3 recognizes that log x2 = 2 log x. So, SPL = 20 log p / po.
Eq. 19-5 Formula for the string’s resonant frequency Fo
Eq. 19-6 Sound Pressure Level (SPL) & Sound Amplitude- derives the attack distance, d
Eq. 19-7 SPL as a f (SPLref  –  20 log (d / dref ))

 

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Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain by R. K. Nichols, J.J.C.H. Ryan, H.C. Mumm, W.D. Lonstein, C. Carter, and J.P. Hood is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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