# TABLE OF EQUATIONS

*Chapter 3: Understanding Hostile Use and Cyber-Vulnerabilities of UAS: Components, Autonomy vs. Automation, Sensors, SAA, SCADA and Cyber Attack Taxonomy *

Eq. 3-1 Qualitative Information Systems Risk as a Function of Threats, Vulnerabilities, Impact, and Countermeasures

Eq. 3-2 Qualitative Information Systems Risk as a Function of Threats and Countermeasures at State = 0

*Chapter 14: Exposing UAS Vulnerabilities via Electronic Warfare (EW) and Countering with Low Probability Intercept Signals (LPI)*

Eq. 14-1 Formula for communication J/S

Eq. 14-2 Simplified J/S communications

Eq. 14-3 Amount of jammer power output required

Eq. 14-4 Radar Range Equation

*Chapter 17: High – Altitude Platforms (HAPS) – A Promise not Reached*

Eq. 17-1 Received signal power, CRX, f (P_{EIRP} x g_{AR} / LFS )

Eq. 17-2 Available noise power N, as a f (k x Ts x B)

Eq. 17-3 Receiving antenna noise temperature, T as a f (T_{AR} + Te)

Eq. 17-4 Calculate C/N = P_{EIRP} x g _{AR} / k x Ts x B x L_{FS}

Eq. 17-5 (C/N) _{dB} = P_{EIRP} – Ls – A_{R} + (G /Ts) _{dB} – 10 log (kB) [decibel form]

Eq. 17-6 The energy per bit is given by: Eb = C x Tb

Eq. 17-7 Rearranging: (C/N) = Eb /Tb / N_{0} x B = Eb x R / N_{0} x B

Eq. 17-8 Correcting for the energy / bit factor: Eb / N_{0} = P_{EIRP} x g_{AR} / k x Ts x R x L_{FS}

Eq. 17-9 Carrier -to – noise spectral density ratio (C/N_{0}) equation

Eq. 17-10 Converting Eq.17-9 to Eb / N_{0} is: (C/ N_{0}) _{dB} = (Eb / N_{0}) _{dB} + 10 log (R) and

Eq. 17-11 Uplink equation: (C/ N_{0})_{ dB}, _{UL} = P_{EIRP}, _{ES} – L_{FS}, _{UL} – A_{R} + (G /Ts) _{dB}, _{HAPS}, _{fom}, / k – k_{dB} – R _{dB, UL}

Eq. 17-12 Downlink equation: (C/ N_{0}) _{dB, DL} = P_{EIRP}, _{HAPS} – L_{FS, DL} – A_{R} + (G /Ts) _{dB, ES, fom}, / k – k_{dB} – R _{dB, DL}

*Chapter 19: Audiology, Acoustic Countermeasures against Swarms and Building IFF Libraries *

Eq. 19-1 General decibel formula in terms of power level (PL)

Eq. 19-2 General decibel formula in terms of power level (IL)

Eq. 19-3 General decibel formula for sound pressure level (SPL) with the corresponding values of pressure squared because (I ≈ p2).

Eq. 19-4 Convenient form of Eq. 19-3 recognizes that log x^{2} = 2 log x. So, SPL = 20 log p / p_{o}.

Eq. 19-5 Formula for the string’s resonant frequency Fo

Eq. 19-6 Sound Pressure Level (SPL) & Sound Amplitude- derives the attack distance, d

Eq. 19-7 SPL as a f (SPL_{ref} – 20 log (d / dref ))