DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Copyright/Publication Page
Dedications
Foreword to 1st Edition
Foreword To 2nd Edition
Preface To 1st Edition
Preface To 2nd Edition
Acknowledgements
List of Contributors
Acronyms
Table of Contents
Table of Figures
Table of Tables
Table of Equations

Section 1: The UAS Playing Field
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) – Defining UAS Cyber Playground

Chapter 1: A View of the UAS Market

Student Learning Objectives
Marketplace History
UAS Marketplace Drivers
Public Acceptance
Infrastructure Influence
Restricting Drones Flight
Commercial
Retail
UAS For Hire – Urban Air Mobility and eVTOL
E-VTOL Cybersecurity
Agriculture
Architecture and Construction
Chinese drones
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
References

Chapter 2: UAS Law – Legislation, Regulation and Adjudication

Student Learning Objectives
Law & Technology – The Tortoise and the Hare
Transportation in the United States – Lessons from the Past Help Guide the Future
Regulation of the Automobile
The Next Transportation Challenge – Aviation
Aviation Design and Manufacture Standards
Regulated Activity Coexisting with Unregulated Activity
Regulating Unmanned Aerial Systems – Smaller Aircraft Larger Problems
Class A Airspace
Class B Airspace
Class C Airspace
Class D Airspace
Class E Airspace
Class G Airspace
Regulating UAS Operation in the NAS
Civilian UAS Operations – Striking Legislative Balance
UAS and Constitutional Rights
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
Common Law Fills the Technology Gap
UAS Manufacturing and Design Standards
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
References

Chapter 3: Understanding Hostile Use and Cyber-Vulnerabilities of UAS: Components, Autonomy vs. Automation, Performance Trade-offs, SCADA and Cyber Attack Taxonomy

Student Learning Objectives
What Is the Counter -UAS Problem?
Operational Protection from Hostile UAS Attacks – A Helicopter View
Countering UAS Air Threats
Vulnerabilities Perspective
Conventional Vulnerabilities of Air Defense Systems (ADS), Attacks by sUAS and Countermeasures
Conventional Countermeasures Against sUAS / UAS
Passive
Aggressor Counter-Countermeasures Specific to UAS Deployment – Swarm
Autonomy vs. Automation
Commercial Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) Overview
Airborne Sensing Systems
Sensor Parameters
Autopilot
SAA Subsystems
SAA Services and Sub-Functions
Low Hanging Fruit
SCADA
“UAS Are Just Flying SCADA Machines!”
Attack Vectors
Cyber -Attack Taxonomy
Espionage
Software Based Vulnerabilities
Insider Threat Vulnerabilities
Intentional Insider Threats
Hardware-Based Vulnerabilities
General Attack Possibilities
Conclusions
Discussion Topics
Bibliography
Readings
Secondary References

Section 2: UAS Information Security, Intelligence and Risk Assessment
Information Security (INFOSEC), Intelligence and Risk Assessments

Chapter 4: INFOSEC – Protecting UAS Information Channels & Components

Student learning objectives
Basic Concepts in Information Security
Policy Questions
How Much Protection is needed?
How long the information must be protected?
Security Attributes
Confidentiality
Integrity
Availability
Security Phases
Protection
Detection
Protected Class
The Unprotected Class
Unknown Class
Insider Class
Counter – Detection Class
Risk
Now Risk
Threats
Vulnerabilities
Now Risk decisions
Future Risk analysis
Systems Engineering an Information Security Solution
Identifying Security Requirements for an Enterprise
Explicit Requirements
Implicit Requirements
Derived Requirements
Security Solutions Consideration
UAS Security Challenges
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
References
Websites of Interest

Chapter 5: Intelligence and Red Teaming

Student learning objectives
Basic Concepts in Intelligence
The Intelligence Cycle
Common Problems in Intelligence
Sources of Intelligence Data
Understanding Attack/Defend as a Tool
Red Teaming
Blue Teaming
Benefits
Discussion Questions
Sources for more information

Chapter 6: Case Studies in Risk for UAS

Student learning objectives
Case 1:  When the Enemy Hacks Your Data Stream
Case 2: When Your Drone Goes Missing
Case 3:  When Pilots Are Targeted for Assassination
Case 4:  When Commercial Drones Spy Domestically
Case 5:  The Drone That Steals Your Wi-Fi Password
Concluding Thoughts
References

Section 3: UAS Heart & Soul – Sense and Avoid (SAA) Systems / Stealth
Sense and Avoid (SAA) – Heart of the UAS Package & Stealthy Design, its Soul

Chapter 7: UAS 7 SAA Methodologies, Conflict Detection & Resolution Principles

Student Learning Objectives
Sense and Avoid (SAA) Function
System Configurations and Subsystems
Sensor Categories
In situ Sensing
Remote Sensing
Units
Sensor Types
Spot sensors
Imaging Sensors
Camera
Visible Spectrum Cameras (VIS) and Near-Infrared (NIR) Cameras
Long-Wave Infrared Cameras (LWIR)
Hyperspectral Images
LIDAR
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Live Video Gimbals for VIS, MWIR and LWIR Cameras
Predicting Conflict
Conflict Detection and Resolution Principles
CDR Architecture
Sensing
Cooperative Sensors
Non-Cooperative Sensors
Intruder Aircraft
Trajectory Prediction
Conflict Detection
Conflict Resolution
Evasion Maneuvers
CDR Taxonomy
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
Readings

Chapter 8: Designing UAS Systems for Stealth

Student Learning Objectives
Designing a UAS for Stealth
Detection Signatures
Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS)
Acoustic waves and Sound Waves in Air
Radio Waves and Light Waves in a Vacuum
RADAR / EW / Range Equation
One – Way Link Equation
Effective Range
Closer
Acoustic Signature Reductions
Visual Signature
Thermal Signature
Radio / RADAR Signature
Low flying UAS – Use Navigation Collision Avoidance RADAR
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
Readings

Chapter 9: Case Study Smart Skies Project

Student Learning Objectives
Safety
See and Avoid
Case Study: The Smart Skies Project
Smart Skies Architecture
Flight Test Capability
The Mobile Aircraft Tracking System (MATS)
The MATS Radar System
The MATS ADS-B Receiver
MATS Performance and Flight Characterization Testing
MATS Results
Sense-and Act
Dynamic SAA
SAA Experiments
UAS Actions
SAA Results
Sense-and Act Systems (Static)
SSA SOA Results
Automated Separation Management System (ASMS)
ASMS Results
Discussion Equations
Bibliography
Readings

Section 4: UAS Weapons & ISR &IO
Payloads – UAS Delivery Systems

Chapter 10: UAS Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

Student Learning Objective
History/Background of UAS ISR
History of Photography
Remote Sensing
UAS ISR-Purpose/Market Sector/Product/Economic Opportunity
Purpose of Technology
Product/ Economic Opportunity
Mission Drives the Sensor Requirements
Standard ISR Camera Sensors
Multispectral and Hyperspectral Sensors
A Changing World Creates a Changing Target Set and Sensor Requirement- SWIR
Bomb-Sniffing Drone Technology
Cave Mapping
Mission and Sensor Planning and Considerations
Importance of stabilized head
Protecting the Systems from the Cyber Threat
Conclusions
Discussion questions
Bibliography
Readings

Chapter 11: UAS Weapons

Student Learning Objective
History
Desert Storm
Events in 2000
Post 9/11/2001
Weapons Systems (Lethal)
Hellfire
GBU-12
GBU-38/GBU-54
Repetition Frequency (PRF) Codes
Code Description
Code Allocation and Assignment
Future weapons
Weapons (Non-lethal)
Anti-Personnel
Optical Weapons
Acoustics
Directed Energy (High Powered Microwaves)
Restraining Mechanisms
Anti-Materials
Chemical/Biological
Directed Energy/Electromagnetic Pulse (DE/EP)
Restraining Mechanisms
Protecting the Weaponized Systems from the Cyber Threat/Response
Conclusions
Questions
Bibliography
References

Chapter 12: UAS System Deployment and Information Dominance (ID)

Student Learning Objectives
UAS in Military and Commercial Service
Information Dominance (ID)
Information Warfare
Information-Based Warfare
High-Altitude Endurance (HAE) and Medium – Altitude Endurance Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Offensive Information Operations (OIO)
Network-centric Operations (NCO)
Coast Guard Roles
Discussion Questions
Bibliography

Section 5: Computer Applications & Data Links – Exposing UAS Vulnerabilities via Electronic Warfare (EW) & Countering with Low Probability Intercept Signals ( LPI)
UAS Vulnerabilities and Electronic Warfare (EW)

Chapter 13: Data Links Functions, Attributes and Latency

Student Learning Objectives
What are the Types of UAV’s and how are they Categorized?
Components of the UAS Datalink and their functions
The UAV and Ground Control Station
The Datalink – Essential Operations, Functions and Capabilities
Attributes to consider in the design of the Data Link
Globally available secure frequency with sufficient bandwidth and assignability
Resistance to unintentional interference
Low Probability of detection and interception
Signal Encryption and Security
Anti-Deception Capability
ARM Resistant Capability
Anti-Jam Capability
Global Radio Frequency Functionality and Adaptability
Resistance to Unintentional Interference
Low Probability of Intercept (“LPI”)
Signal Encryption and Security
Resistance to Deception
Anti-ARM
Anti-Jam (AJ) Capabilities
Additional Considerations
Digital vs Analog
System Interface Considerations
Data-Rate
Closed Loop Contol
Interchangability, Interoperability and Standarization
Datalink Latency
The Current Environment
Flight Control Technology
Low Endurance
Medium Endurance
High Endurance
Discussion Questions
References

Chapter 14: Exposing UAS Vulnerabilities via Electronic Warfare (EW) and Countering with Low Probability Intercept Signals (LPI)

Student Learning Objectives
Modern Communication Threats to UAS
Definitions
Cyber Infiltration (CI / CyI)
Cyber Manipulation (CM / CyM)
Cyber Assault (CA / CyA)
Cyber Raid (CR / CyR)
Cyber-Attack. See CyI, CyM, CyA, or CyR
Cybercrime (CC / CyC)
C4ISR
Electronic Warfare (EW)
Information Assurance (IA)
Information Operations (IO)
Information Superiority (IS)
Information Warfare (IW)
Intentional Cyber Warfare Attack (ICWA).
Intentional Cyber Actors (I-actors)
Network Centric Operations (NCO)
OPSEC
OPSEC – The Official Definition
Psychological Operations (PO)
Psychological Warfare (PW / PSYWAR)
Unintentional Cyber Actors (U-actors)
Unintentional Cyber Warfare Attack (UCWA/ UA)
Information Operations (IO) and the part EW plays
Electronic Warfare (EW) Purview
Communication Links for UAS are critical and must be secured
Intelligence Cycle
EW Generalities
Legacy EW definitions
ESM
ECM
ECCM
ES
EA
EP
COMINT
ELINT
ES/ESM
Main Contention
Communications Jamming
Jammer-to-Signal Ratio
Functions and features
Technical parameters
Equation 14-3 amount of jammer power output required
Radar Range Equation
LPI Communication Signals
LPI Restrictions
Discussion Questions /Assignment
Bibliography
Readings

Section 6: UAS / UAV Hostile Use & Countermeasures
Adversary UAS / Drone Hostile Use

Chapter 15: Africa – World’s First Busiest Drone Operational Proving Ground – Where Counterterrorism and Modernization Meet   

Student Learning Objectives
Africa – Overview
Africa – The Facts
Economics
The Spread of Radical Islam across Africa
Africa – Al-Qaida and Islamic State
The Spread of Radical Islam across Africa
Africa – Al-Qaida and Islamic State
Salafi-Jihad Movement
Africa – Katiba Macina Groups (KM)
Africa – Al-Qaida and Islamic State
Tuareg Rebellion [NMLA]
Africa – Ansar Dine (AD)
Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS)
Africa – Counterterrorism Efforts
Why Fight Terror Groups in Africa?
Joint European Union Counterterrorism
G5 Sahel – Five Africa States United
United Nations Counterterrorism
France – Operation Serval
France – Operation Barkhane
French EADS Harfangs
France – West Africa
Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP)
Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism (PREACT)
United States – West Africa
United States – East Africa
United States – North Africa
United States – Central Africa
Cameroon
China Counterterrorism
Israel Counterterrorism Efforts
Germany – West Africa
Pakistan – West Africa
Egypt – North Africa
Italy/France/United States – East Africa
Africa Maritime Piracy and Violence
Africa’s Maritime Security
China – Africa’s Maritime
European Union Naval Force’s (EUNAVFOR)
Morocco’s Commercial Activity in Africa
UNICEF and Virginia Tech
Summary
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
Readings

Chapter 16: Chinese Drones in Spratly Islands, and Chinese Threats to USA forces in Pacific

Student Learning Objectives
Location of the Spratly Islands and Their Strategic Importance
Target Drones
Shark Swarm and Wanshan Marine Test Field
Fast Drone Ship
Long-Range UUV
Crisis Watch
A Birds’ Eye View
Red Drones over Disputed Seas
S-100 by Scheibel
ASN-209
BZK -005
GJ- 1 Chinese UCAV
Interference with US Ships – Exploring the Cyberweapon deployed from UAS against US Capital Ships
The Case for Cyber Weapon Spoofing of Legacy GPS Signals Affecting Us Navy and Commercial Vessels in Pacific
U.S Navy Vessel Collisions in the Pacific
Navy Response
The Navy Official Reaction regarding the possibility of Cyber-Weapon or Cyber-Attack
The Case for a Cyber Weapon
Surfacing Questions
Closest Point of Approach (CPA) Spoofing
How could be the GPS chaos to US Vessels be achieved?
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
Readings
Patents

Section 7: Technology Updates

Chapter 17: High – Altitude Platforms (HAPS) – A Promise not Reached

Student Learning Objectives
Introduction
Missions
Telecommunications
Earth Observation
GNSS
UAV-Aided Wireless Communications
UAV-aided ubiquitous coverage
UAV – aided relaying
UAV – aided information dissemination and data collection
Challenges
Simple HAPS UAV Network Architecture
Control and Non-Payload Communications Link (CNPC)
CNPC links operate in protected spectrum
Backhaul Links
Data Links
Channel Characteristics, Propagation and Channel Modelling
UAV-Ground Channel
HAPS UAV – UAV Channel
From the Designers Shoes
Stratosphere Segment
Platforms
Aerodynamic Platforms (UAVs)
Platform Choice – Key Designer Issues
Telecommunications Payload
Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT & C)
Table 17-5 Functions of TT & C Subsystem
Avionics
Electrical Power Subsystem
Ground Segment
Spectrum Allocation for HAPS
HAPS Link Budget
One-Way Link Budget Analysis
Uplink equation
Downlink equation
Discussion Questions
Bibliography

Chapter 18: C-UAS and Large-scale Threats

Student Learning Objectives
Countering Emerging Unmanned Air System Threats
Introduction
Current Civil Restrictions / Policy, Directed Reviews from HR 302
Steps to Easing Restrictions
HR 302: FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018
C-UAS and the Department of Homeland Security
C-UAS and the Department of Defense
SWARMS
AI and Machine Learning
C-UAS and the General Public
Emerging Threat of Large Civil UAS
Results
Current Restrictions / Policy, Directed Reviews from HR 302
C-UAS and the Department of Homeland Security
C-UAS and the Department of Defense
C-UAS and the General Public
Conclusion(s)
Bibliography
Further Readings

Chapter 19: Audiology, Acoustic Countermeasures against Swarms and Building IFF Libraries

Student Learning Objectives
Problem
Problem Solution
Review of key points from Chapter 8 Stealth
Detection Signatures
Essentials of Audiology
For the Birds
Audiology Fundamentals
Intensity and Inverse Square Law
Decibels
The Nature of Sound
Other Parameters of Sound waves
Complex waves
Patient D v-105
Standing Waves and Resonance
UAS / Acoustic Counter Measures FAQ
In terms of UAS Countermeasures, why are Acoustics so important?
Acoustic Signature Reductions
Can the UAS signatures be reduced?
What are the Acoustic Detection Issues?
Is Acoustic Quieting possible?
Compromising the Sound Source
Drone on Drone Attack
GPS Denied Navigation
MEMS
Resonance Effects on MEMS
What is Resonance Tuning?
What is the “so what” for Acoustics? Here are the author’s thoughts:
Are there Countermeasures for Acoustic attack on Gyroscope?
South Korean experiment
NOISE
UAS Collaboration – SWARM
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
Readings

Chapter 20: Legal and Regulatory – Where it Was, where it is and what’s Ahead?

Student Learning Objective
Introduction
Current Regulatory Overview
Future Regulatory Framework
Conflict of Laws
Putting It Together – Where Law Meets Reality
Scenario 1 Interference with Fire Fighting
Scenario 2 Military, Legal, Public Safety
Decisions and Dilemmas for Student Consideration
Conclusions
Bibliography

Chapter 21: Chinese UAS Proliferation along New Silk Road Sea/ Land routes

Student Learning Objectives
Chinese Government Building the “The Belt & Road”
The Belt
Central Role in Road: Kazakhstan
The Belt Achievements to Date
Maritime Silk Road (MSR)
Chinese Military Build Up to Support the New Silk Road
Digital Silk Road
Drones are a critical part of China’s New Silk Road
In Plain Sight: China Drones Manufacturers
US involvement in the New Silk Road
Digital Belt and Road
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Bibliography
Secondary Web Sources

Chapter 22: Ethics in the New Age of Autonomous Systems and Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Student Learning Objective
History
Can ethics and morals be logically extended to AI and autonomous systems?
Balance V. Bias in AI and autonomous fields
If an AI system becomes self-aware, does it deserve human rights? Citizenship?
Lethal and none-lethal decisions; do we allow Skynet to be built?
Can we build autonomous systems that will obey the “rules of the road?
Ethics in new technology manufacturing
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Bibliography

 

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Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain by R. K. Nichols, J.J.C.H. Ryan, H.C. Mumm, W.D. Lonstein, C. Carter, and J.P. Hood is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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