Abbreviations: Acronyms

The following terms are common to the UAS industry, general literature or conferences on UAS/UAV/Drone systems.

A /Aref Amplitudes of source and reference points, see Eq-20-6, 7
AA Anti-aircraft / Adaptive Antennas
AAA Anti-aircraft artillery
AAIB Air Accidents Investigation Board
AAM Air-to-air missile
AAV Autonomous air vehicle
A/C Aircraft
ACAS Airborne collision avoidance system / Assistant Chief of the Air Staff
ACL Agent communication language / Autonomous control levels
ACS Airborne control station (system)
ACTD Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration
AD Ansar Dine terrorist group
A/D Attack / Defense Scenario Analysis
ADAC Automated Dynamic Airspace Controller
ADC Air data computer
ADF Automatic direction finder/finding
ADS Air Defense System (USA)
ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast systems
ADT Air Data Terminal
AEW Airborne early warning
AF Adaptive Filtering
AFCS Automatic flight control system
AFRICOM US Africa Command
AGM Air- to- surface missile
AGARD Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (NATO)
AGM-65 Maverick (USA) is an air-to-surface missile (AGM) designed for close air support. It is the most widely produced precision-guided missile in the Western world, and is effective against a wide range of tactical targets, including  armor, air defenses,  ships, ground transportation and fuel storage facilities
AHA Autopilot Hardware Attack
AHRS Attitude and heading reference system
AI Artificial intelligence
AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Aerospace
AIC Aeronautical Information Circular
AIP Aeronautical Information Publication
AIS Automated Identification System for Collision Avoidance
AJ Anti-Jam
AM Amplitude Modulation / al-Mourabitoun terrorist group
ANSP Air Navigation Service Provider
AO Area of Operations
AoA Angle of Attack
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
APG Asia-Pacific Gateway
APKWS Advanced precision kill weapon system
AQ Al-Qaeda Terrorist Group – “the Base”
AOA Aircraft Operating Authority
AQIM Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
Ar Receive antenna effective area, m2
AR Aspect ratio
AR drone AR stands for “Augmented Reality” in AR droneAR Drone can perform tasks like object recognition and following, gesture following
ARM Anti-Radiation Munitions
ARS Airborne Remote Sensing
ARW Anti-radiation weapons
AS Airborne Sensing Systems
ASB Advisory Service Bulletin
ASEA Active electronically scanned arrays
ASEAN Association of Southeastern Asian Nations
ASL Airborne Systems Laboratory
ASMS Automated Separation Management System
ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials
ASTER Agency for Science, Technology and Research
ASW Anti-submarine warfare
AT Aerial target
ATC Air Traffic Control
ATM Air Traffic Management
ATR Automatic Target Recognition
ATS Air Traffic Service
AUDS Anti-UAV Defense System
AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International
AV Air Vehicle
AWSAS All Weather Sense and Avoid System
B IF equivalent bandwidth, Hz
BAMS Broad Area maritime surveillance
Backhauling Intermediate links between core network or internet backbone and small subnets at the edge of the network
Bandwidth Defined as the Range within a band of wavelengths, frequencies or energy.Think of it as a range of radio frequencies occupied by a modulated carrier wave, assigned to a service over which a device can operate. Bandwidth is also a capacity for data transfer of electrical communications system.
BDA Battle Damage assessment
BER Bit error rate
BLOS Beyond line-of-sight
BNF Bind and Fly – with custom transmitter
BRI Belt and Road Initiative (Chinese)
BR&T Boeing Research and Technology
BSR Bilinear Signal Representation
BSs Base Stations
BVR Beyond visual range
c Speed of light ~ (3 x 108 m/s) [186,000 miles per sec] in vacuum named after Celeritas the Latin word for speed or velocity
c Speed of sound (344 m/s) in air
C Combined methods of CR [Conflict Resolution]
C2 / C2W Command and control / Command and Control Warfare
C3I Command, control, communications and Intelligence
C4 Command, control, communications and computers
C4ISTAR Command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, target Acquisition and reconnaissance
CA Collision Avoidance / Clear Acquisition (GPS) / Cyber Assault (aka CyA)
CAA Control Acquisition cyber attack
CAS Close Air Support / Common situational awareness
CASA Civil Aviation Safety Authority
C of A Certificate of Airworthiness
CAP Civil Air Publication / Combat Air Patrol
CAT Collision Avoidance Threshold
CC / CyC Cyber Crime
CCCI/II Classical Cryptography Course Volume I/II (Nichols R. K., Classical Cryptography Course Volume I / II, 1996)
CCE Cyber Counter Espionage
CCI Command control interface / Cyber Counterintelligence
CCS Cyber Counter Sabotage
CCT Cyber Counter Terrorism
CD Conflict Detection
CDL Common data link
CDMA Code division multiple access
CDR Collision detection and resolution systems (automated SAA in UAS)
CEA Cyber electromagnetic activities
CETC Chinese Electronics Technology Group
CF Computer Forensics
CFTA Continental Free Trade Area
CFT Certificate of flight trials
CI / CyI Cyber Infiltration
CIA Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability / Central Intelligence Agency
CIN Common Information Network
CIR Color Infrared – artificial standard where NIR bands shifted so that humans can see the infrared reflectance
C/N Carrier to Noise ratio in HAPS, => C/ N0
CM / CyM Cyber Manipulation
CN3 Communications / navigation network node
CNO Chief Naval Operations
CNPC Control and non-payload links
COA Certificate of Waiver or Authorization
COB Chief of the Boat
COMINT Communications intelligence
COMJAM Communications Jamming
COMSEC Communications Security
CONOP(S) Concept(s) of Operations
CONUS Continental United States
COS Continued Operational Safety
COTS Commercial off-the-shelf
CPA Closest Point of Approach
CPA Spoof CPA spoof involves faking a possible collision with a target ship
CPL Commercial pilot’s license
CPRC Communist Party of the Republic of China
CR Conflict Resolution / Close range / Cyber Raid (aka CyR)
CRH Coaxial rotor helicopter
CRX Received Signal Power, watts
CS Control station
CSDP Common Security and Defense Policy missions (EU)
CSfC Commercial Solutions for Classified Program
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
CT Counter Terrorism / Counter Terrorism Mission
CTOL Conventional take-off and landing
C-UAS Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems (defenses / countermeasures)
CUAS CSIRO Unmanned Aircraft Systems
CV Collision Volume
CW / CyW Cyber Warfare
D Distance from transmitter in Range equation (Adamy D. -0., 2015)
DA Danger area
Danger Close Definition www.benning.army.mil/infantry/magazine/issues/2013/May-June/Myer.html Nov 14, 2013 – 1) Danger close is included in the “method-of-engagement” line of a call-for-fire request to indicate that friendly forces are close to the target. … Danger close is a term that is exclusive from risk estimate distance (RED) although the RED for 0.1 percent PI is used to define danger close for aircraft delivery.  Pi = Probability of incapacitation. 2) Definition of “Danger close” (US DoD) In close air support, artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support fires, it is the term included in the method of engagement segment of a call for fire which indicates that friendly forces are within close proximity of the target.
DARO Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DAS Detection by Acoustical Signature
dB decibels
DC Direct current
DCPA Distance between vessels approaching CPA
DDD Dull, dangerous, and dirty
DDOS Distributed Denial of Service cyber attack
DE Directed Energy
DEFCON DEFCON is the world’s longest running and largest underground hacking conference
DE / EMP   /EP Directed energy / Electromagnetic pulse
DEW Directed – energy weapons
DF Direction finding
DFCS Digital Flight Control System
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DIME Diplomatic, information, military and economy
Dj Jammer location – to-target receiver location distance, in km, FM 34-40-7
DJ Data Jamming / Drone Jammer
DJI Popular and functional Chinese made drone series: Mavic, Phantom, Ryze, Matrix, Spark, Enterprise, Inspire, Tello {However, banned by USA Army} (Newman, 2017)
DL Downlink in HAPS
DLA Date last accessed (usually a web reference)
DLI Data Link interface
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid – genetic key to human life
DoD Department of Defense
DOF Degrees of Freedom
DOS Denial of Service cyber attack
DPM Direct power management / Dynamic Power Management
DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
DSA Detect, sense and avoid / Dynamic Sense-and-Act
DSSS Direct sequence spread spectrum
Dt Enemy transmitter location -to- target receiver location, in km, FM 34-40-7
DT Directional transmission
DTDMA Distributed Time Division Multiple Access network radio system
DTED Digital terrain evaluation data
DTH Direct-To-Home
DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency
DUO Designated UAS operator
EA Electronic Attack
EARSC European Association of Remote Sensing Companies
EAS Equivalent airspeed
EAU East Africa union comprising of Israel and six East African states, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan
(Eb / N0) Thermal noise power spectral density ratio
ECCM / EP Electronic counter-countermeasures / Electronic Protection
ECM Electronic countermeasures
ECR Electronic combat reconnaissance
EDC Estimated Date of Completion
EHS Enhanced surveillance
EIRP Effective Isotropic radiated power
Electrolaser Electroshock weapon that is also a DEW. Uses lasers to form electrically conductive laser-induced plasma charge
ELINT Electronic Intelligence
ELT Emergency locator transmitter
ECM Electromagnetic compatibility
EM Electromagnetic
EMI Electromagnetic interference
EMP Electromagnetic pulse
EMR Electromagnetic Radiation
EMS Electromagnetic Spectrum
EMSVIS Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible Light
EMW Electromagnetic Waves
EO Electro-optical (sensing) / Earth Observation
ERPJ Effective radiated power of the jammer, in dBm
ERPS Effective radiated power of the desired signal transmitter, in dBm
ESM / ES Electronic support measures / Electronic warfare support / Earth station
EU European Union
EUNAVFOR European Union Naval Force’s anti-piracy naval mission
EUTM Somalia Military training mission in Somalia
EVTOL Electric Vertical Take-off and Landing
EW Electronic warfare
F Field theory methods of CR
F Fundamental frequency is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform
f Frequency, cycles / second RRE)
F Resonant frequency of string, Hz see Eq. 20-5
F Frequency in MHz, FM 34-40-7
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FACE Future Airborne Capability Environment
FAR False Alarm rates
FBL Fly-by-Light, a type of flight-control system where input command signals are sent to the actuators through the medium of optical-fiber
FBW Fly-by-Wire: Predetermine flight mission path based on GPS coordinates
FCS Flight control systems / Flight Control Station
FDF Frequency Domain Filtering
FDM Frequency division multiplexing
FHSS Frequency hopping spread spectrum
FIR Far Infrared (25-40) to (200-350) um
FIRES Definition (US DoD – JP 3-0) the use of weapon systems to create a specific lethal or nonlethal effect on a target
FL Flight level
FLIR Forward-looking  Infrared
FMS Flexible manufacturing system
Follow-Me UAS autopilot automatically follows operator
Fom HAPS Figure of merit in upload /download link
FoV Field of View
FFoV Forward Field of View
FRAGO Fragmentary Order – to send timely changes of existing orders to a subordinate
FPGA Field programmable gate array
FS Fixed service
FSS Fixed satellite service
FW Fixed wing
G Geometric methods of CR
G5S G5 Sahel (G5S) Joint Force, has membership of five states; Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Chad
gAR Receiving Antenna Gain as a Factor
GBU Guided Bomb Unit
GCHQ Government Communications Headquarters (Britain)
GCS Ground Control Station
GDPR European Union’s (EU) General Data Protection Regulation
GDT Ground data terminal
GEO Geostationary Earth orbit satellite
GeoFence A geofence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world  geographic area
GLOW Gross lift-off weight for a missile / rocket
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPS Global Positioning System / Geo Fencing
GPS/INS Use of GPS satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an inertial navigation  system (INS). The method is applicable for any GNSS/INS system.
GPSSPOOF Hack of GPS system affecting UAS commands
GPWS Ground proximity warning system
GR The receiving antenna gain in the direction of the desired signal transmitter, dBi
GRJ   Receiving antenna gain in the direction of the jammer, in dBi
GS Ground segment of HAPS
GSE Ground support equipment
GSHM Ground Station Handover Method
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GT Game Theory methods of CR
G/T Ratio of the receive antenna gain to system noise temperature
(G /Ts) dB Represents the figure of merit of the HAPS receiver, in dB
GT Gain of the transmit antenna, dB
GTA Ground-to-Air Defense
Harmonic Frequency, which is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency
H Elevation of the jammer location above sea level, feet, FM 34-40-7
HAE High altitude endurance
HALE High altitude – long endurance
HAPS High Altitude Platforms (generally for wireless communications enhancements)
HAPS UAVs UAVs dedicated to HAPS service (example to communicate via CNPC links)
HEAT High-explosive anti-tank warhead
HITL Human in-the-loop
HMI Human machine interface
HPA High power amplifier
Ht Elevation of enemy transmitter location above sea level, in feet, FM 34-40-7
HUD Heads-up display
HUMINT Human intelligence (spy’s)
HVT High value target (generally, for assassination)
I Sound intensity, W x m-2 [Source strength S / 4πr2] (Uni-wuppertal, 2019)
IA Information Assurance / Intentional cyber warfare attack
I-actors Intentional Cyber Actors
IAS Indicated air speed
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
I.C.B.C.  International Center for Boundary Cooperation (China)
ICGs Information centers of gravity
ICS Internet Connection Sharing
ID Information Dominance / Inspection and Identification
IEDs Improvised Explosive Devices
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEWS Intelligence, electronic warfare and sensors
IFF Identification, friend or foe (see chapter 19)
IFR Instrument flight rules
I&I Interchangeability and Interoperability
IIT Intentional Insider Threats
Imaging Sensors ARS sensors that build images
IL Intensity level of sound measured, dB, Eq. 20-2
IMINT Imagery intelligence
IMM Interacting-multiple-models tracker
INS Inertial navigation system
IMU Inertial Measurement Unit
INFOSEC Information Security
IO Information Operations
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IOR India Ocean Region
IoT Internet of things
IPL Insitu Pacific Limited
IR Infrared
IRST Infrared search and tracking
IS Information Superiority
ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS)
ISR Intelligence, Reconnaissance and Surveillance UAS Platform
ISTAR Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance
ITU International Telecommunications Union – Standards Organization
ITU-R International Telecommunications Union – Radio Sector
IW Information Warfare
JAGM Joint-Air-to-Ground Missile
JAUS Joint architecture for UAS
JDAM Joint direct attack munitions
JFO Joint fires observer
JP Joint Publication – followed by military identifier
JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition
JNIM Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin
JOPES Joint Operation and Planning System / Execution System
JP Joint Publication
J/ S = the ratio of the jammer power to the desired signal power at the input to the receiver being jammed in dB
JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller
JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) is an L band DTDMA
K Boltzmann’s constant (Noise component, RRE) (1.38 x 10 -23 J/K), Kelvin
K for jamming frequency modulated receivers (jamming tuner accuracy), FM 34-40-7
KAMIKAZE Means “Divine Wind,” Tactic best known for Japanese suicide A/C attacks on Allied Capital Vessels in WWII. UAS TEAMS or SWARMS could be directed in the same way.
KM Katiba Macina Groups
L λ / 2 in Eq. 20-5
LAANC Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability
LASER “A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of  electromagnetic radiation.  The term “laser” originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently, spatially and temporally. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances – collimation, enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence, which allows them to emit light with a very narrow spectrum. i.e., they can emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light as short as a femtosecond. Used: for military and LEO devices for marking targets and  ,measuring range and speed.” (Gould, R.G. 1959)
Laser JDAM Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition – dumb bombs, all weather precision –guided munitions. Guided by an integrated inertial guidance system.
Laser rangefinder Scope to assist targeting of munitions. Countermeasure: laser-absorbing paint
LGWs Laser-guided weapons
Latency Processing difference between time interval signal is transmitted and signal is received
LCDR Lieutenant Commander
L/D Lift to drag ratio
LDCM Low Duty cycle methods
LEO Low Earth Orbit Satellite
LGB Laser-guided bomb, a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser guidance to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided one
LGTF Liptako-Gourma task force (LGTF) established by Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to secure their shared border region
LIDAR Light (Imaging) Detection and Ranging
LFS Free-Space Loss as a Factor
LIPC Laser-induced plasma channel
LJ Propagation loss from jammer to receiver, in dBi
LMM Lightweight Multi-role Missile (by Thales)
LOS Line-of-sight / Loss of Signal / Loss of Separation
LOSAS Low cost Scout UAV Acoustic System
LPA Log periodic array
LPI Low Probability of Intercept
LR Long range
LRAD Long Range Acoustic Device (Weapon) (Yunmonk Son, 2015)
LRCS Low radar cross section
LRE Launch and recovery element
LRF Laser rangefinder
LS Losses existing in the system (lumped together), dB (RRE)
LS The propagation loss from the desired signal transmitter, in dBm
LSDB Laser Small Diameter Bomb
LST Laser spot trackers
LTA Lighter than Air (airship) / Low noise amplifier
LTE /LTE+ Long Term Evolution – refers to mobile telecommunications coverage
LWIR Long wave Infrared (sensor or camera)
M Mass in Eq. 20-5
MA Multi-agent methods of CR
MAD Magnetic anomaly detection / Mutually Assured Destruction (International Nuclear Policies in 50s-70s)
MAE Medium-altitude endurance
MAGTF Marine air-ground task force
MALDRONE Malware injected into critical SAA for UAS
MALE Medium-altitude, long endurance UAS
MALE-T Medium altitude long endurance – tactical UAS
MAME Medium altitude, medium endurance
MASINT Measurement and Signal Intelligence
MATS Mobile Aircraft Tracking System
M-AUDS Mobile Anti-UAV Defense System
MAV Micro-air vehicle
Maverick AGM -65 (USA) Missile
MCE Mission control element
MCM Mine countermeasures
MCU Master Control Unit (SCADA)
MDR Missed Detection Rates
MEB Marine expeditionary brigade (14,500 marines and sailors)
MEMS Micro-electromechanical systems (see chapter 19)
MEO Medium Earth Orbit satellite
MFD Multi Function display
MGTOW Maximum gross takeoff weight
MHT Multiple-hypotheses-testing
MIM Man in the Middle cyber attack
MINUSMA Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali
MIR Mid Infrared 5 to (25-40) um
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MMI Man-machine interface
MORS Military Operations Research Society
MPI Message-passing interface
MPO Mission payload operator
MR Medium range
MRE Medium-range endurance
MRZR LMADIS A Light Marine Air Defense Integrated System. System mounted on a Polaris MRZR diesel tactical combat vehicle. Comprised of two vehicles – one a command node and the other a sensor node. Once the threat is detected , the LMADIS uses jamming to disrupt the signals of the drone.
MS Mobile service
MSL / AGL MSL altitudes are measured from a standard datum, which is roughly equal to the average altitude of the ocean. So, an aircraft traveling 5,000 feet directly above a mountain that’s 3,000 feet tall would have an altitude of 5,000 feet Above Ground Level (AGL) and 8,000 feet MSL.
MSR Maritime Silk Road (China)
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime
MTI Moving target indication
MTOM Maximum take-off mass
Modulation Signal Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic  waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted
MTOW Maximum takeoff weight of an aircraft at which the pilot can attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits
MTS Multi Spectral Targeting System
MTTR Multitarget tracking radar/ Mean time to repair
MUAV Mini-UAV or maritime UAV
MUJAO Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa
MUM Manned-unmanned teaming
MWIR Midwave Infrared
MW Microwave towers
N Available Noise power, watts for HAPS
N Terrain and ground conductivity factor, FM 34-40-7, where 5 = very rough terrain with poor ground conductivity; 4 = moderately rough terrain with fair to good ground conductivity; 3 = Farmland terrain with good ground conductivity; 2 = Level terrain with good ground conductivity. The elevation of the jammer location and the enemy transmitter location does not include the height of the antenna above the ground or the length of the antenna. It is the location deviation above sea level.
NAC Network Access Control
NACA National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics
NAS National Airspace (USA)
NAV Nano-air vehicle / NAV data message for GPS systems
NBC Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare
NCO Network-centric operations
NCW Network Centric Warfare
NDRC National Development and Reform Commission (China)
NEC Network enabled capability
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NIEM National Information Exchange Model
NIR Near Infrared
NLOS Non-line-of-sight
NMAC A NMAC is defined as an incident associated with the operation of an aircraft in which a possibility of collision occurs as a result of proximity of less than 500 feet to another aircraft, or a report is received from a pilot or a flight crewmember stating that a collision hazard existed between two or more aircraft.
NMLA National Movement for Liberation of Azawad (Tuareg Rebellion)
NO Numerical Optimization methods of CR
NOLO No onboard live operator (USN)
NOTAM Notice to airmen
NPS National Park Service
NSA National Security Agency (US)
NTSB National Transportation Safety Board
NTT Non-Threat Traffic
NULLO Not using live operator (USAF)
O Other methods of CR
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
OIO Offensive Information Operations
OLOS Out-of-the-line-of-sight
OODA Decision Loop: Observe, Orient, Decide, Act
OPA Optionally piloted aircraft
OPAV Optionally piloted air vehicle
OPSEC Operations Security
OSI Open systems interconnection
OTH Over-the-horizon
P Isotropic source of an electromagnetic pulse of peak power, MW
PANCAS Passive Acoustic Non-Cooperative Collision Alert System
PCAS Persistent close air support
PEIRP Transmitter effective isotropic radiated power, watts
PFMS Predictive Flight Management System
PEMSIA Partnership in Environmental Management of the Seas of East Asia
PGM Precision guided missile
PHOTINT Photographic intelligence (usually sky – ground)
PII Personal Identifiable Information
PIM Position of intended movements/Previously intended movements
PIT Proximity Intruder Traffic
Pj                   Minimum amount of jammer power output required, in watts, FM 34-40-7
PL Power level, dB, Eq. 20-1
PLA Chinese People’s Liberation Army
PLAN People’s Liberation Army Navy (China)
PLC Programmable Logic Controllers (SCADA)
PMIAA Permissions Management: Identification, Authentication and Authorization
PNF Plug and Fly with custom transmitter, receiver, battery and charger
PO Psychological Operations
POS Position and Orientation System
POV Point of View
PPP Precise Point Positioning
PPS Precise positioning service (GPS)
PRC People’s Republic of China (China)
PSD Power Spectral Density
PREACT Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism (PREACT)
PRF Pulse repetition frequency codes
PRM Precision Runway Monitor
PSH Plan-symmetric helicopter
PSR Primary Surveillance Radar
Pt Power output of the enemy drone, in watts, FM 34-40-7
PW / PSYWAR Psychological Warfare
PWO Principal Warfare officer
P(Y) Precise Signal (GPS)
QOS Quality of Service in HAPs
QUAS QUT UAS (see below)
QUT Queensland University of Technology
R 1 /Tb is the bit rate (b/s) in link equation
R4 Energy density received at detected target range, R, nm
RA Resolution Advisory
RAC Range air controller
RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging
RAST Recovery, assist, and traverse
RB Rule-based methods (Conflict Resolution)
RBW Red-Breasted Woodpecker
RCE Remote Code Execution
RCO Remote-control operator
RCS Radar cross-section
RCTA Surf Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RF Radio Frequency
RGB Red Green Blue for VIS camera
RGT Remote ground terminal
Rician PDF Rician probability density function
RIMPAC Rim of the Pacific Exercise – Maritime
RL Ramp launched
RMS Reconnaissance management system /Root-mean-square
RN Ryan-Nichols Qualitative Risk Assessment Equations 17-2, 17-3
RNRA Ryan – Nichols Attack / Defense Scenario Risk Assessment for Cyber cases
ROA Remotely operated aircraft
ROC Republic of China (Taiwan)
RPA Remotely piloted aircraft
RPH Remotely piloted helicopter
RPV Remotely piloted vehicle
RR Radio regulations
RRE Radar Range Equation
RSA RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) -authors of early public –key cryptographic system
RSTA Reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition
RTA Dubai Roads and Transport Authority
RTF Off-the-shelf, Ready-to-Fly
RTK Real Time Kinematic
RTS Remote tracking station/Request to send/Release to service
RTU Remote Terminal Unit
RUAV Relay UAV
RWR Radar warning receiver
S Intensity at surface of sphere
SAA Sense and Avoid  / Sense and Act Systems; replaces See and Avoid function of a human pilot
SAASM Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SAM Ace-to-Air Missile
SAMPLE Survivable autonomous mobile platform, long-endurance
SAP Systems Applications and Products also the name of a company
SAR Synthetic aperture radar / Search and rescue- especially using helicopters
SAS Safety Assurance System
SATCOM Satellite communications
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems
SCHEMA Security Incident Identification
SCIF Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility
SCS Shipboard control system (or station) / Stereo Camera System / South China Sea
SE Synthetic environment
SECDEF Secretary of Defense
Shadowing Airframe shadowing – UAV- Ground signal degradation during maneuver
SEZ Special economic zones
SHM Simple harmonic motion – represented by sine wave
SHORAD Short Range Air Defense systems
SIGINT Signals Intelligence
Signature UAS detection by acoustic, optical, thermal and radio / radar
SJM Salafi-Jihad Movement
SKASaC Seeking airborne surveillance and control
SKYNET Fictional artificial intelligence system that becomes self-aware
SM Separation Management
SMC Single moving camera
SME Subject matter expert
SMR Single main rotor
S/N S/N = is one pulse received signal to noise ratio, dB; Signal to Noise ratio at HAPS receiver
SOA Static Obstacle – Avoidance system
SPL Sound pressure level, dB = 20 Log p / po [measured pressures to reference pressure]   See Eq. 20-3,4; 6-7
SPS Standard position service (GPS)
Spoofing A Cyber-weapon attack that generates false signals to replace valid ones
Spot Sensors ARS sensors that measure single locations without image library
SQL SQL Injection – common malevolent code injection technique
SR Short range
SRL Systems readiness level
SSA Static Sense-and-Act
SSP Smart Skies Project
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
SST Self–Separation Threshold
STANAG 4856 Standard interfaces of UAV Control System for NATO UAV
STK Satellite tool kit
STOL Short take-off and landing
sUAS Small Unmanned Aircraft System
SUAVE Small UAV engine
SWARM High level, dangerous collaboration of UAS, UUV, or unmanned boats
SWAT Special Weapons and Tactics (police / paramilitary)
SWAP Size, weight and power
SWIR Shortwave infrared, 1400-3000 nm, 1.4 -3.0 um wavelength range
SZ Safety Zone is defined as the horizontal and vertical separation criteria which form a cylindrical airspace volume around the UAS. In figure 3-2 that volume is defined by 1000 ft radius and 200 ft height. It is assumed that initially the UAS is in the center with 100 ft above and below the A/C.
T In Range equation & environment, strength of a received signal, function of square or fourth power of distance, d, from transmitter (Adamy D. -0., 2015)
T Time, sec (RRE)
T Tension in Eq.20-5
TA Traffic Advisory
TAC Target air controller
TACAN Tactical air navigation
TAR Antenna noise temperature, Kelvin
TAS True airspeed
TBO Time between overhauls
TC Type certificate
TCAS Traffic alert and collision avoidance system
TCPA Time to reach Closest Point of Approach
T Effective input noise temperature, Kelvin
TEAM (UAS) High level, dangerous collaboration of UAS, UUV, or unmanned boats; differs from SWARM in that it has a UAS Team Leader, (TL) where SWARM does not. TL directs the UAS team and is the primary counter UAS target to disrupt.
TETRA Terrestrial Trunked Radio for terrestrial terminals / services
Thermobaric Metal augmented charge
TIR Thermal infrared = 8000 – 15000 nm, 8 -15 um
TL Team Leader
TO Take-off
Tort A tort is an act or omission that gives rise to injury or harm to another and amounts to a civil wrong for which courts impose liability.
TP Trajectory Prediction
TRANSCOM U.S. Transportation Command networks
TRL Technology readiness level
TS Measured noise temperature, Kelvin units above absolute zero / Top Secret classification
TSTCP Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership. TSCTP partners include Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.
TT & C Telemetry, tracking and command
TUAV Tactical UAV
UA Unmanned Aircraft (non-cooperative and potential intruder)
U-Actors Unintentional Cyber Actors
UAE United Arab Emirates
UAM Urban Air Mobility (vehicle)
UAPO Unmanned Aircraft Program Office
UAS Unmanned Aircraft System
UASC Unmanned aircraft system commander
UASIPP UAS Integration Pilot Program
UAS-p UAS pilot
UAV Unmanned aerial vehicle
UAV-p UAV pilot
UBR Uplink bit rate, Mb/s
UCAR Unmanned combat armed rotorcraft
UCARS UAV common automated recovery system
UCAV Unmanned combat air vehicle
UCWA / UA Unintentional cyber warfare attack
UGCS Unmanned Ground Control Station
UGS Unmanned ground-based station
UGV Unmanned ground vehicle
UHF Ultra High Frequency, 300 MHz – 3 GHz
UIT Unintentional Insider Threats
UL Upload link
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
USD Unmanned surveillance drone
UTM Unmanned Traffic Management
UTV Unmanned target vehicle
UUV Unmanned underwater vehicle
UUNs / DUNSs Urgent / deliberate universal needs statements
V Visible
VFR Visual flight rules
VIKI Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence
VLA Very light aircraft
VLJ Very Light Jet
VLAR Vertical launch and recovery
VLOS Visual Line of Sight
VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions
VNIR Visible light and near infrared 400 – 1400 nm, 0.4 – 1.4 um wavelength range
Voloport Landing site for Volcopter
VTOL Vertical take-off and landing
VTUAV Vertical take-off UAV
WEF World Economic Forum
WEZ Weapon Engagement Zone
WRC World Radio Conference Standards Organization
XO Executive Officer of Naval vessel
ZIGBEE or KILLERBEE Sniffing / penetration tools specific to UAS
Greek Symbols
λ Wavelength in Hz, c / f where c= speed of light 344 m/s and f = frequency, Hz.
Σ Radar Cross Sectional Area, m2

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Austin, R, (2010) Unmanned Aircraft Systems: UAVS Design, Development and Deployment, West Sussex, UK: Wiley, [Condensed with additions from eleven-page “Units and Abbreviations Table.” Pp. ix-xxix] Additional sources generated from / specific to Chapter development / discussion.

Cyber terminology from: Nichols, R. K. (Sept. 5, 2008) Cyber Counterintelligence & Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF) Needs – Talking Points & (Randall K. Nichols J. J., 2018) & (Nichols R. K., Hardening US Unmanned Systems Against Enemy Counter Measures, 2019) & (Randall K. Nichols D. , Chapter 20 Acoustic CM & IFF Libraries V SWARMS Rev 1 05142019, 2018) & (Randall K. Nichols and Lekkas, 2002)& (NIST, September 2012)

Alford, L. D., Jr., USAF, Lt. Col. (2000) Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems Acquisition Review Quarterly, spring 2000, V.7, No. 2, P, 105, http://www.Dtic.Mil/Dtic/Tr/Fulltext/U2/A487951.Pdf

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