Table of Figures

  1. Drone Capabilities to Deliver Weapons of Mass Destruction / Disruption (WMDD) -Global Perspective

 Figure 1.1-Armed Unmanned Surface Vehicle from BAE Systems

Figure 1.2 Dumpsites of reported chemical and explosive munitions from 1918-to-1980

Figure 1.3 Robot drone

Figure 1.4 Robot drone

Figure 1.5 Robot drone

Figure 1.6 DARPA funded Atlas robot developed by Boston Dynamics

Figure 1.7 Aerial drone used in movie scene filming

Figure 1.8 Image of Predator B drone

Figure 1.9 Use of synchronized swarming drones in a night display

Figure 1.10 Field assembly of a drone capable of thermal imaging and delivery of 1.5kg bombs

Figure 1.11 Drones are being used to drop Molotov cocktails against Russian troops in Ukraine.

Figure 1.12 DJI drone caring grenade in an improvised carrier made from a plastic jug


  1. Chemical Weapons

Figure 2.1 Soldiers in Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) Gear

Figure 2.2 Civil Defense member carries a damaged canister in Ibleen village.

Figure 2.3 Soldier in MOPP Gear Ready

Figure 2.4 Mustard gas artillery shells

Figure 2.5 Agriculture Drone is spraying pesticides on crops

Figure 2.6 DJI Agri’s T30


  1. Biological Weapons

 Figure 3.1 Early Unmanned Bioweapons

Figure 3.2 Spraying Drone

Figure 3.3 African Swine Fever Across Asia

Figure 3.4 Democratic People’s Republic Of Korea (DPRK) (North Korea) Drone

Figure 3.5 Swarm Of Mass Destruction


  1. Radiological, Electromagnetic, Drone & Metaverse Risks and Issues

Figure 4.1  Common Sources of Radiation

Figure 4.2  Cognitive Key Terrain

Figure 4.3  Radiological Spectrum

Figure 4.4  Anechoic Chamber[large vs. small] example

Figure 4.5  CONV-CBRN Threat Dynamics

Figure 4.6  Setting the Stage for NV


  1. Nuclear Weapons

Figure 5.1 Russian President Vladimir Putin Addresses The Russian Federal Assembly

Figure 5.2 Russian Poseidon 2m39 Torpedo

Figure 5.3 A&B Belgorod – Russian Unmanned Nuclear Submarine

Figure 5.4 Belgorod – Russian Unmanned Nuclear Submarine

Figure 5.5 China Nuclear Expansion

Figure 5.6 China Drone Lineup Sharp Sword Stealth Drone And The Wing Loong Reaper


  1. Explosives Delivered by Drone

Figure 6.1: A Picture Taken By A Drone From Above Its Intended Target.

Figure 6.2: Ukrainians Develop Drone That Drops Molotov Cocktails

Figure 6.3: Close-Up – Ukrainians Develop Drone That Drops Molotov Cocktails

Figure 6.4: Molotov Cocktail Released

Figure 6.5: Heavy Modifications To Civil Drone Platforms Enabled To Carry Very Low Cost Yet Powerful Munitions Such As Mortars 60-81mm Rounds.

Figure 6.6: Point Shooting with a Drone

Figure 6.7: Russian KUB-BLA “Suicide Drone”

Figure 6.8: KUB-BLA Russian Loitering Munition

Figure 6.9: Russian Suicide Drone Used in Ukraine That Picks its Targets Though Advance AI

Figure 6.10: The Wreckage of Another Russian KUB-BLA Loitering Munition

Figure 6.11: US Marine firing Switchblade from a pneumatic launch tube

Figure 6.12: Switchblade 600

Figure 6.13: Artist rendition of a switchblade launch

  1. Deception 

Figure 7.1 Operating Nuclear Power Plants within the U.S.

Figure 7.2 Cyber Electromagnetic Activities

Figure 7.3 CEA / CEW in the view of Total War 

  1. DEW Primer

Figure 8.1 Energy Deposition from Bombs and DEW

Figure 8.2 Energy Flow and Resulting Change in Temperature

Figure 8.3 Special Case: Constant Surface Temperature

Figure 8.4 Effect of Wind v Temperature

Figure 8.5 Black Body Radiation

Figure 8.6 Fluence and Intensity

Figure 8.7 Depth Vaporized by 104 Joules v Area Engaged and Fluence

Figure 8.8 Divergence and Jitter


9: DE Weapons, Projectiles, Damage

Figure 9.1 Coyote unmanned aircraft system.

Figure 9.2 Coyote unmanned aircraft system on the tarmac of Avon Park Air Force Range in Florida.

Figure 9.3 IAI Israeli Harop

Figure 9.4 Newtons Second Law of Motion Relationships

Figure 9.5 Projectile Distance and Velocity Coordinates

Figure 9.6 Effect Of Elevation Angle On Velocity Components

Figure 9.7 Flight Equations with Drag

Figure 9.8 Thrust

Figure 9.9 Smashing two Bricks without spacers for 2nd Degree Black Belt Test

Figure 9.10 Possible Effects Of Kinetic Energy Projectiles

Figure 9.11 SABOT APFSDS Projectile

Figure 9.12 HEAT Projectile

Figure 9.13 Charge Projectile Detail


  1. DE Weapons, MASERS/LASERS

Figures 10.01 & 10.02 Laser Pointers – Pilot View

Figure 10.00 Laser Pointer (small)

Figure 10.1: Charles Townes (Left) And Jim Gordon With A Beam Type Maser.

Figure 10.2: Theodore Maiman

Figure 10.3: Laser Coherence

Figure 10.4: Laser Dazzler For M-4 Rifle

Figure 10.5: Laser Dazzler In Operation

Figure 10.6: Atmospheric Influences

Figure 10.7: Laser Platform Mounted On Boeing 747

Figures 10.8 & 10.9: Laser Testing

Figure 10.10: Laser Weapon Destroying UAV

Figure 10.11: Hel (High Energy Laser) USS Ponce

Figure 10.12: Drone Being Destroyed


11: DE Weapons, Microwaves

Figure 11.1: Microwave Portion of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Figure 11.2: Kitchen Microwave

Figure 11.3: Inside of ordinary kitchen microwave oven

Figure 11.4: Magnetron and Set-up Transformer

Figure 11.5  ADS (Active Denial System) / LRAD (Long Range Active Denial)

Figure 11.6: US embassy in Havana, Cuba

Figure 11.6A Two styles of US Marine Corps trucks are seen carrying the Active Denial System, March 9th, 2012, at the US Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. The non-lethal weapon projects a strong electromagnetic beam up to 1000-meters

Figure 11.7: Frey Effect

Figure 11.8: CHAMP

Figure 11.9 DJI Phantom 4

Figure 11.10: Analyzing a Radar Pulse Using an R&S Spectrum Analyzer

Figure 11.11: Theoretical Detection Range Without Noise

Figure 11.12: Theoretical Detection Range With Noise, e.g., In An Urban Environment.

Figure 11.13: Theoretical jamming range

Figure 11.14: Jamming ration for CE-compliant remote control operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band


  1. Hypersonic Drone Missiles 

Figure 12.1 Comparison of speeds for various aircraft and vehicles

Figure 12.2 Commercial flight time from New York City to Orlando Florida

Figure 12.3 Categories of Hypersonic missiles

Figure 12.4 HGV trajectories compared to a Ballistic Reentry Vehicle

Figure 12.5 Detection avoidance

Figure 12.6 Russia’s land-based silo launch

Figure 12.7 India Mobile Launcher

Figure 12.8 Zircon Hypersonic missile ship launch

Figure 12.9 Aircraft launched a hypersonic missile

Figure 12.10 Cutaway diagram of a basic jet engine

Figure 12.11 Cutaway diagram of scram engine

Figure 12.12 General thrust equation

Figure 12.13 Tile weights per cubic foot for the Thermal Protection System tiles used on the STS Orbiter

Figure 12.14 Cutaway diagram of the X-51A HCM with subsystems

Figure 12.15 Countries pursuing hypersonic weapon technology

Figure 12.16 Attack scenario against 3 NATO countries from a Baltic based launch

Figure 12.17 Distances between possible Chinese launch sites and targets in Korea, Japan, and Taiwan

Figure 12.18 Various Ranges for ballistic coverage from eastern Chinese missile launch facilities providing coverage in the south Pacific

Figure 12.19 Illustration of China’s hypersonic tests

Figure 12.20 The Observe. Orient. Decide. Act-Loop

Figure 12.21 Cruise missiles’ launch footprints and travel times to target

Figure 12.22 Possible target coverage ranges of a Hypersonic Glide Vehicle


  1. Acoustic Weapons

 Figure 13.1: Inverse Square Law, Sound Intensity

Figure 13.2 shows common decibel and Intensity levels within the hearing range.

Figure 13.3: Tuning for Oscillations

Figure 13.4: Tuning fork oscillations over time

Figure 13.5: Standing wave

Figure 13.6 LRAD

Figure 13.7 NATO OTAM ATM

Figure 13.8  LRAD Ship Defense on USS ESSEX

Figure 13.9: MEMS Gyroscope

Figure 13.10 Location of Dongsha Island and Taiwan

Figure 13.11 Spratly Islands

Figure 13.12 Spratly Islands

Figure 13.13 S-100 Chinese Drone

Figure 13.14 S-100 Drone Trajectories in the Spratly Islands

Figure 13.15 BZK -005 Chinese Drone

Figure 13.16 Chinese UAS. Chinese Intelligence Assets Deployment in Spratlys

Figure 13.17 Malicious Drone Activities in SCS near Taiwan

Figure 13.18 ATS – SCREAMER


  1. Satellite Killers

 Figure 14.1. A satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) around Earth

Figure 14.2. Classification of altitude orbits and uses

Figure 14.3. Number of Russian (left) and Chinese (right) satellites in orbit between 2019 and 2021

Figure 14.4. The counter-space continuum shows the range of threats to space-based satellite services

Figure 14.5. Computer simulation of tracked objects in Earth’s orbit. Red, yellow, and green objects are representations of active satellites and debris in the GEO and MEO.

Figure 14.6. Space-based weapons


  1. Cyber Weapons and CBRNE

Figure 15.1 CIS Shared Threats

Figure 15.2 Infrastructure Interdependencies


  1. Assessing the Drone Delivery Future WMD / DEW Threats and Risks

Figure 16.1 Picture of a Sea-Air Integrated Drone

Figure 16.2 Diagram showing communications between sea-air drone and remote operator

Figure 16.3 Illustration of UMVs, UGVs, and UAVs swarms working together

Figure 16.4: Image of a soldier and a Black Hornet UAV

Figure 16.5 Timeline of Industrial Revolutions,

Figure 16.6  Future capabilities of autonomous/ AI systems

Figure 16.7 Image of Industrial Revolution and the next revolution

Figure 16.8 WWII Red Cross Prisoner of War Gift Package

Figure 16.9 United States Department of Defense

Figure 16.10 MIT Technology Review


  1. Unique Challenges of Responding to Bioterrorism and Chemical Threats and Attacks Delivered By Drones

Figure 17.1 Chemputer Drones

Figure 17.2 3D Printed Drone

Figure 17.3 ISIS 3D Printed Bomb

Figure 17.4 3D Bioprinter

  1. Practical Crime Scene Investigation (CSI) Using Autonomous Systems

 Figure 18.1 A Timeline of the History of Forensic Science

Figure 18.2 Law enforcement humanoid in Dubai shopping mall

Figure 18.3. Law enforcement humanoid in a public space

Figure 18.4 UGV assisting at an IED site

Figure 18.5 Investigator using a UAV at a crime scene Examining UAV use in CSI-Crash Scene Photo Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Figure 18.6. Side by Side Comparison of DS-1A and DS-1B UAVs

Figure 18.7 A Timeline of Fingerprint Firsts

Figure 18.8 Dr. Henry Lee, examining evidence

Figure 18.9 Glove demonstration from the Simpson trial. The gloves did not fit.

Figure 18.10 Automated Speed Enforcement Technology

Figure 18.11 Scenes from the Rittenhouse courtroom


  20. Social Network implications for WMDD

Figure 20.1 A third of US Tik Tok Users may be 14 or under, Raising Safety Concerns.

Figure 20.2 Drone operator flying over rooftops

Figure 20.3 Grenade launched from DJI Phantom

Figure 20.4 DJI Operator


  1. Tools of The Trade

Figure 21.1 A typical UAS Threat COP over one month.

Figure 21.2 Using search engines to list incident events in the past seven days.

Figure 21.3 au/ alerts

Figure 21.4 A global view of tweeted drone incidents

Figure 21.5 A collection of words for slack.

Figure 21.6 The free, weekly UAS Threat Intelligence brief Source

Figure 21.7 The UAS TIP provides global incident tracking and analysis capabilities.

Figure 21.8 The DroneSec Notify UAS TIP Dashboard

Figure 21.9 Performing a search for a specific prison Source

Figure 21.10 Viewing a running list of recent high-priority reports

Figure 21.11 Viewing a running list of UAS artifacts

Figure 21.12 A search for C-UAS related content in the Knowledge Base

Figure 21.13 The Stolen Drone Info tool dashboard

Figure 21.14 Example of a stolen drone reported on the SDI.