Table of Figures


 SECTION 1  Counter-UAS (C-UAS) Operations as a Concept

 Chapter 1 The Role of Information Technology [Ryan]

 Figure 1-1 Simplified OODA Loop

Figure 1-2 Boyd’s Drawing of the OODA Loop

Figure 1-3 Time Elements of the OODA Loop

Figure 1-4 OODA Loop 2.0 – Making Decisions V2.0


Chapter 2 Understanding C-UAS Purpose and Process [Carter]

Figure 2-1 Flock of Drones in the Air

Figure 2-2 UTM and C-UAS

Figure 2-3 Black Sage UASX-L3 Automatic Drone Disruptor

Figure 2-4 Russia’s Kasta 2-2

Figure 2-5 U.S. High Energy Laser Weapon Systems (HELWS)

Figure 2-6 IDS NO-DRONE

Figure 2-7 China’s LW-30


Chapter 3 Developing a C-UAS Strategy, Goals, Options, Target Analysis, Process Selection, Operational Metrics, Approaches to Countering UAS Activities (First Principles) [Mumm]

Figure 3-1 XBee Chip

Figure 3-2 UAV Net

Figure 3-3 Kamikaze Drone Example

Figure 3-4 Mobile High-Powered Microwave System

Figure 3-5 Laser Sensor Ball

Figure 3-6 Iranian Drone

Figure 3-7 Chinese Drones on Parade

Figure 3-8 Toofan Drone

Figure 3-9 Quds-1 Cruise Missile

Figure 3-10 SAAB Giraffe AMB Radar

Figure 3-11 Toofan Detection System

Figure 3-12 StarkStreak II Missile System

Figure 3-13 Example of a High-Powered Microwave System

Figure 3-14 Sample Image of an AVERT C2 System

Figure 3-15 Case Study C-UAS Solution Diagram

Chapter 5 Surveillance and Reconnaissance [Mumm]

Figure 5-1 Drone Capability Diversity

Figure 5-2 Example of RADAR Signal

Figure 5-3 Infrared Heat Signature

Figure 5-4 Air Space Classification

Figure 5-5 ADS-B Signal Broadcast

Figure 5-6 Size Comparison Drone to Commercial Aircraft -A

Figure 5-7 Size Comparison Drone to Commercial Aircraft-B

Figure 5-8 Overlapping Sensor Example


Chapter 6 C-UAS Evolving Methods of Interdiction

Figure 6-1 Blockchain in Supply Chain Management

Figure 6-2 Notional Design of Blockchain-Mitigated Channels of Communication

Figure 6-3 Communications Blockchain Geofence for the Financial District of Manhattan NYC




Chapter 7 UAS Area / Airspace Denial [Hood]

Figure 7-1 The Premise of Anti-Access / Area Denial

Figure 7-2 Overcoming Adversarial Defenses

Figure 7-3 Air Space Denial Russian A2AD Strategy and Its Implications for NATO

Figure 7-4 Russian A2AD Strategy Against NATO

Figure 7-5 Drone Shield Drone Sentry

Figure 7-6 Drone Sentry X


Chapter 8 Emerging Interdiction Technologies [Hood]

Figure 8-1 Boeing X-51 Hypersonic

Figure 8-2 Scramjet Engine Principles

Figure 8-3 Raytheon Mobile High Energy Laser System

Figure 8-4 Ascent Vision Technologies Marine Air Defense Integrated System (MADIS)

Figure 8-5 Drone Gun MKIII

Figure 8-6 Typical Layered Russian Air IADS


Chapter 9 Non- Kinetic Military Avionics, EW, CW, DE, SCADA Defenses [Nichols]

Figure 9-1 Global Hawk

Figure 9-2 Chinese Pterodactyl

Figure 9-3 Shows A haze of smoke is seen from the attacked oil plant in Saudi Arabia

Figure 9-4 Strait of Hormuz

Figure 9-5 A Military Avionics System

Figure 9-6 P-3 Orion MPA

Figure 9-7 MPA Example – Swordfish

Figure 9-8 MQ-4C Triton BAMS MPA (unmanned)

Figure 9-9 High-Power Microwave Weapon to Destroy or Disable Swarms of Unmanned Aircraft

Figure 9-10 THOR

Figure 9-11 Raytheon announces delivery of first laser counter-UAS system to U.S. Air Force

Figure 9-12 Information Operations

Figure 9-13 Drone Crash into 737-700 passenger jet while landing at Mozambique

Figure 9-14 Legacy SCADA system for Chemical Plant.

Figure 9-15 UAS SCADA System Internals

Figure 9-16 High -Level C4 Operational Concept Incorporating UAS

Figure 9-17 Drone Jammer Model KWT-FZQ.

Figure 9-18 Simple Radar Block Diagram

Figure 9-19 Simple Surveillance Radar

Figure 9-20 Computer modeling of sophisticated radio electronic systems

Figure 9-21 Cyber Electromagnetic Activities


SECTION 3  Counter C-UAS


Chapter 10 When the Other Side Fights Back – Cyberwarfare, Direct Energy Weapons, Acoustics, Integrating  C-UAS into Planning [Nichols]

Figure 10-1 Integration of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) into Every Operating Domain

Figure 10-2 Electronic Warfare in today’s military environment

Figure 10-3 EMS Purview

Figure 10-4 EMO in EME

Figure 10-5 Collimated light for Laser

Figure 10-6 Laser processing activities as a function of the laser pulse width

Figure 10-7 Microwave portion of the EMS

Figure 10-8 LRAD 1000X

Figure 10-9 Conversion for sound and acoustic wave period to frequency and back

Figure 10-10 Sound EMS Regions

Figure 10-11 Equal Loudness Contours

Figure 10-12 Inverse Square Law, Sound Intensity

Figure 10-13 Common decibel and Intensity levels within the hearing range.

Figure 10-14 Tuning for Oscillations

Figure 10-15 Tuning fork oscillations over time

Figure 10-16 Standing Wave

Figure 10-17 MEMS Gyroscope

Figure 10-18 Chinese CH7 – UAV

Figure 10-19 Okhotnik drone flying next to the SU-57, Russia’s most advanced stealth fighter

Figure 10-20 The Iranian The Shahed 129

Figure 10-21 Israeli Tactical Heron  Top of Form

Figure 10-22 Predator C Avenger

 Chapter 11 Thinking Like the Enemy – Seams in the Zone [Lonstein]

Figure 11-1 Opana Radar site

Figure 11-2 Battle of Constantinople

Figure 11-3 Talking Drone

Figure 11-4 Trojan Horse

Figure 11-5 Drone Enforcement

SECTION 4  Legal and Administrative Issues

Chapter 12 C-UAS Regulation, Legislation & Litigation from A Global Perspective [Lonstein]

Figure 12-1 Angry Farmer Spoof

Figure 12-2 Global C-UAS Legal Implication Matrix

Figure 12-3 Cockroaches and Nuclear Bombs

Figure 12-4 FAA Law Enforcement Guidance

Figure 12-5 Angel Has Fallen

Figure 12-6 Asimov’s 3 Laws for Robots



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Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies and Operations Copyright © 2020 by R. K. Nichols; J.J.C.H. Ryan; H.C. Mumm; C. Carter; W.D. Lonstein; and J.P. Hood is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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