Table of Contents


Front Matter


Title Page

Copyright /Publication Page

Books also By Randall K. Nichols






List of Contributors

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Table of Contents

Table of Figures

Table of Tables

Table of Equations




SECTION 1:  Counter-UAS (C-UAS) Operations as a Concept


Chapter 1: The Role of Information Technology [Ryan]


Student Learning Objectives


Disrupting the Decision Cycles

Conceptualizing the Information Systems in UASs


Boundary systems


How Complex information Technologies Are Used in UAS operations

Decision Support Systems

Expert Systems


Implications for C-UAS Operations

How Sensing is Used to Support UAS Operations


Questions For Reflection



Chapter 2: Understanding C-UAS Purpose and Process [Carter]



Driving Forces for Increasing the Demand For C-UAS

C-UAS and the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Disruptive Technologies that will innovate the future of C-UAS

The Need for Innovation of C-UAS UAS and C-UAS Qualify as The New Global Arms Race




Chapter 3: Developing a C-UAS Strategy, Goals, Options, Target Analysis, Process Selection, Operational Metrics, Approaches to Countering UAS Activities (First Principles) [Mumm]



C-UAS Analysis Framework

  1. Analyzing the Threat

Understanding the Purpose and Weaponization of the Threat

Understanding the Aerodynamics of the Threat

Understanding the Air Vehicle Design of the Threat

Is it One Drone or Multiple Drones?

Understanding the Navigation

  1. Solution Limitations

Frequency Limitations

Global Governance

Legal Ramifications

Atmospheric Limitations

  1. Developing a Counter-drone Response



  1. Interdiction

Small Drones

Medium Drones

Large Drones

Case Study


Creating a Solution

Analyzing the Threat:

Toofan Drone

Quds-1 Missile

Potential DIANA Missile Usage

Solution Limitations

Preservation of Existing Infrastructure


Atmospheric Limitations

A Multi-Layered Counter Drone Response Plan




The Chosen Solution:

Outer Layer

Inner Layer

Command and Control






Chapter 4:  Planning for Resiliency and Robustness [Ryan]


Student Learning Objectives

Understanding the Difference between Resiliency and Robustness



Comparing Resiliency and Robustness

Operational Aspects of Resiliency and Robustness

Measuring Resiliency and Robustness

How Processes can Boost Resiliency and Robustness

When Resiliency and Robustness is More Costly than Optimal

When Resiliency and Robustness are Attacked

Types of Attacks

Cascading Effect Potential

The Role of Secrecy

Operational Secrecy

Capability Secrecy

Resiliency and Robustness Secrecy

Questions for Reflection




SECTION 2:  C-UAS Technologies and Processes

Chapter 5: Surveillance and Reconnaissance [Mumm]


Student Learning Objectives

History-What is it and Why Does it Matter?

Threat Identification-How and Why

Radio Frequency (RF)

Electro-Optical Sensors-Full Motion Video Cameras

Infrared Sensors (IR)

Acoustic Sensors for C-UAS

It’s a Big Sky-How Can We Discern the Clutter from the UAS?

Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)-Helping to Eliminate the “Good Guy” from C-UAS Surveillance and Reconnaissance Challenge

The Difficulty of Differentiating Harmless Aircraft from Threat Aircraft in the C-UAS Space

New Challenges Require New Thinking-Combined Sensors

Mission Planning Secrecy – Protecting the Data

Mission Planning for C-UAS for Perimeter Protection






Chapter 6: C-UAS Evolving Methods of Interdiction [Carter]

Student Learning Objectives

Why is Interdiction Needed?

What is a Blockchain?

The Process of Blockchain Synchronization

Blockchain Aircraft Communication

Blockchain Vulnerabilities

Blockchain Unmanned Aircrafts

U.S. Unmanned Aircraft Patents

Countering a Blockchain Unmanned Aircraft Attack

Next Counter -UAS Hurdle – 5G  Communication, Blockchain, Unmanned Aircrafts

Challenges Facing Interdiction Methods for C-UAS






Chapter 7: UAS Area / Airspace Denial [Hood]


Student Learning Objectives

Key Concepts

Recent Rise in A2-AD Ideologies and Challenges

Anti-Access Challenges

Area-Denial Challenges

Case Study: Countering Growing Chinese A2/AD in the Indo Pacific Region

Integrated Air Defense System (IADS)

Understanding Emerging Vulnerable Gap

Russian A2AD Case Study

Current C-UAS A2AD Civil Applications



Supplemental Readings


Chapter 8: Emerging Interdiction Technologies [Hood]


Student Learning Objectives

Hypersonic Threats

Hypersonic Countermeasures

Directed Energy Weapons

Extreme Long-Range Cannon

Cyber-Enabled IADS

Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Integration



Supplemental Readings


Chapter 9: Non- Kinetic: Military Avionics, EW, CW, DE, SCADA Defenses [Nichols]


Student Objectives

What Is the Counter -UAS Problem?

Operational Protection from Hostile UAS Attacks – A Helicopter View

Countering UAS Air Threats

Vulnerabilities Perspective

Conventional Vulnerabilities of Air Defense Systems (ADS), Attacks By sUAS and Countermeasures

Conventional Countermeasures Against sUAS /UAS

Aggressor Counter-Countermeasures Specific to UAS Deployment – SWARM

Implications from Attack by Iran on Saudi Arabian Oil Fields

Military Avionics

Military Aviation Roles

P-3 Orion MPA Example

Saab Swordfish MPA


C-UAS Premise

Effects of Directed Energy (DE) Weapons (EDEW)

Energy required for damage

Ice Cube

10,000 Joules

Energy Alone Sufficient for Hard Damage?

Energy Delivery Rate


Energy Losses in Propagation

Directed Energy (DE) Counter Weapons, High-Powered Microwave (HPM) Defenses, High-Power Lasers (HPL)

Raytheon announces delivery of first laser counter-UAS system to U.S. Air Force

Modern Communication Threats to UAS

Information Operations (IO) and the part EW plays

Autonomy vs. Automation

Commercial Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) Overview

Specifications affecting hostile UAS operations

Airborne Sensing Systems

Sensor Parameters


Attack Vectors

Cyber – Attack Taxonomy

Software – Based Vulnerabilities

Hardware-based Vulnerabilities

Electronic Warfare (EW) – UAS Purview

Communication Links for UAS are critical and must be secured

Main Contention

Communications Jamming -UAS

Jammer-to-Signal Ratio

Drone gun – Chinese alternative

Radar Range Equation

Complex RADAR / RES Simulations


Discussion Question


Appendix 9-1 Tri-band Anti Drone Rifle KWT-FZQ/DG10-A

Functions and features

Appendix 9-2 MQ-4C Triton design features

Mission capabilities of MQ-4C Triton BAMS UAS

Payloads of Northrop’s unmanned system

Ground control station

Appendix 9-3:  J/S Calculation Example



SECTION 3:  Counter C-UAS


Chapter 10: When the Other Side Fights Back – Cyberwarfare, Direct Energy Weapons, Acoustics, Integrating  C-UAS into Planning [Nichols]


Student Objectives

What Happens When the Enemy Decides to Fight Back?

First Actions


Practical Aviation Security in USA

Security Implications of UAV Operations (5 major threats)

Important Changes in Electronic Warfare

Cyberwarfare Purview

Cyber vs EW Battlespace (Parallels)

EMS Environment


DE Weapons

Kinetic Energy Weapons (KEW)


Microwave Target Interaction

Particle Beams

PB Target Implications (especially large UAS)

Acoustic Countermeasures and Building Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) Acoustic Libraries

Revisiting the C-UAS Problem

Problem Solution

Sound as a Weapon and Countermeasure

Essentials of Audiology

Detection Signatures

Designing a UAS for Stealth

Acoustic Signature Reductions

Audiology Fundamentals

Acoustic waves and Sound Waves in Air

Intensity and Inverse Square Law

The Nature of Sound

Other Parameters of Sound waves

Complex waves

Standing Waves and Resonance


Resonance Effects on MEMS

Resonance Tuning

What is the “so what” for Acoustics?

What is an Acoustical attack on the UAS Gyroscope?

Countermeasures for Acoustic attack on Gyroscope

In terms of UAS Countermeasures, why are Acoustics so important

What are the Acoustic Detection Issues?

Is Acoustic Quieting possible?

How has the Long-Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) used as a sonic weapon

UAS Collaboration – SWARM

South Korean experiment


Real World C-UAS

Chinese CH7

Russian Okhotnik aka “Hunter Drone”

The Iranian Shahed 129

The Israeli Tactical Heron

USA  Predator C Avenger


Discussion Questions


Appendix 10-1: Standard Acoustic Principal Physical Properties


Chapter 11: Thinking Like the Enemy: Seams in the Zone [Lonstein]


Student Learning Objectives:

Students Will Be Able To:

Preliminary Statement

Keeping it Simple

History as a Guide

Hiding in Plain Sight; Distinguishing the Attacker from the Hobbyist


Vulnerability Axis 1: Familiarity

Attacker Perspective

Vulnerability Axis 2:  Environmental Concealability

Attacker Perspective

Vulnerability Axis 3: Conformity with Regulation.

Attacker Perspective

Vulnerability Axis 4: Adapting Appearance to Attract Susceptible Targets

Attacker Perspective

Vulnerability Axis 5: Attraction – Distraction – Stealth

Attacker Perspective

Vulnerability Avis 6: A Studious Attacker

Attacker Perspective

Vulnerability More Than a Seam – A Gaping-hole

The Information Age – A Tool for Attackers

Rapid Advancements in Technology -Amplified Vulnerability




SECTION 4:  Legal and Administrative Issues


Chapter 12: C-UAS Regulation, Legislation & Litigation from A Global Perspective [Lonstein]


Student Learning Objectives

Once Completed Students Should

Current C-UAS Regulatory Landscape

Can C-UAS Be Regulated? The C-UAS Fable

Other Considerations – Self Defense


Questions to Consider





Adamy, D. (2001). EW 101 A First Course in Electronic Warfare. Boston, MA: Artech House.

Barnes, D. E. (2019, September 23). The Urgent Search for a Cyber Silver Bullet against Iran. Retrieved from New York Times:

Fazzini, K. (2019, September 22). Saudi Aramco Attacks could Predict widespread cyber warfare from Iran. Retrieved from CNBC:

Gelfand, S. A. (2009). Essentials of Audiology, 3rd Edition. Stuttgart, DE: Thieme.

LRAD Corporation. (2019, October 18). Product sheet LRADS 1000x. Retrieved from LRAD Corporation :

Nichols, R. K., Mumm, H. C., Lonstein, W. D., Ryan, J. J., & and Carter, C. (2018). Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the Cyber Domain: Protecting USA’s Advanced Air Assets. Manhattan, KS: New Prairie Press (NPP) eBooks. 21.

Nichols, R. K., Mumm, H. C., Lonstein, W. D., Ryan, J. J., Carter, C., & and Hood, J.-P. (2019). Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain. Manhattan, KS: NPP eBooks. 27.

Nicole Gaouette, K. L. (2019, September 21). US to send troops and air and missile defense to Saudi Arabia as Trump announces new Iran sanctions after oil attack. Retrieved from CNN Politics:

Taghvaee, B. (2017, July 27). Shahed 129 Heads Iran’s Armed UAV Force. Retrieved from Aviation Week & Space Technology:

Tucker, W. (2019, September 23). Saudi Oil Facilities Attack has created International Risks. Retrieved from



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Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies and Operations Copyright © 2020 by R. K. Nichols; J.J.C.H. Ryan; H.C. Mumm; C. Carter; W.D. Lonstein; and J.P. Hood is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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