Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations: Acronyms [Rev 66A]


The following terms are common to the UAS industry, general literature or conferences on UAS/UAV/Drone systems.


A2 / AD          Anti-access / Area Denial

A /Aref            Amplitudes of source and reference points, see Eq-20-6,7

AA                  Anti-aircraft / Adaptive Antennas

AAA               Anti-aircraft artillery

AAIB              Air Accidents Investigation Board
AAM              Air-to-air missile

AAV               Autonomous air vehicle

ABI                 Aviation Block Infrastructure

A/C                 Aircraft
ACAS             Airborne collision avoidance system / Assistant Chief of the Air Staff
ACL                Agent communication language / Autonomous control levels

ACOUSTIC    Detects drones by recognizing unique sounds produced by their motors

ACRP             Airport Cooperative Research Project
ACS                Airbome (defense) control station (system)

ACTD             Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration

AD                 Air Defense / Ansar Dine terrorist group

A/D                 Attack / Defense Scenario Analysis

ADAC            Automated Dynamic Airspace Controller
ADC               Air data computer

ADF               Automatic direction finder/finding

ADMS            Air defense missile (radar) system

ADS                Air Defense System (USA)

ADS-B            Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast systems

ADT                Air Data Terminal

AESA             Active electronically scanned array
AEW              Airbome early warning

AF                   Adaptive Filtering

AFCS              Automatic flight control system

AFRICOM     US Africa Command

AGL                Above ground level

AGM               Air- to- surface missile
AGARD         Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (NATO)

AGM-65         Maverick (USA) is an air-to-surface missile (AGM) designed for close air support. It is the most widely produced precision-guided missile in the Western world, and is effective against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, ground transportation and fuel storage facilities.

AHA               Autopilot Hardware Attack

AHD               Analog high definition
AHRS             Attitude and heading reference system
AI                    Artificial intelligence

AIAA              American Institute of Aeronautics and Aerospace
AIC                 Aeronautical Information Circular

AIP                 Aeronautical Information Publication

AIS                 Automated Identification System for Collision Avoidance

AJ                    Anti-Jam

ALB                Air Land Battle

ALERT           Advanced Low-observable Embedded Reconnaissance Targeting system.

AM                  Amplitude Modulation / al-Mourabitoun terrorist group

AMB               Agile Multi-Beam

AMRAAM     Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile

ANSP              Air Navigation Service Provider

ANO               Air Navigation Order (UK)

AO                  Area of Operations

AoA                Angle of Attack

APEC              Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

APG                Asia-Pacific Gateway

APKWS          Advanced precision kill weapon system

AQ                  Al-Qaida Terrorist Group – “the Base”

AOA               Aircraft operating authority

AQIM             al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

Ar                            Receive antenna effective area, m2

AR                  Aspect ratio

AR drone        AR stands for “Augmented Reality” in AR droneAR Drone can perform tasks like object recognition and following, gesture following.

ARM               Anti-Radiation Munitions

ARS                Airborne Remote Sensing

ARW               Anti-radiation weapons

AS                   Airborne Sensing Systems

ASB                Advisory Service Bulletin  / Air Sea Battle

ASEA             Active electronically scanned arrays

ASEAN          Association of Southeastern Asian Nations

ASL                Airborne Systems Laboratory

ASMS             Automated Separation Management System

ASTM             American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)

ASTER           Agency for Science, Technology and Research

ASuW             Anti-surface unit warfare

ASW               Anti-submarine warfare

AT                  Aerial target

ATC               Air Traffic Control

ATHENA       Lockheed Martin Advanced Test High Energy Asset

ATM               Air Traffic Management

ATR                Automatic Target Recognition

ATS                Air Traffic Service

AUDS             Anti-UAV Defense System

AUV               Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Avionics          Aviation electronics in manned or unmanned aircraft

AUVSI            Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International

AV                  Air Vehicle

AWSAS          All Weather Sense and Avoid System

B                     IF equivalent bandwidth, Hz

BAMS             Broad Area maritime surveillance

Backhauling    Intermediate links between core network or internet backbone and small subnets at the edge of the network

Bandwidth       Defined as the Range within a band of wavelengths, frequencies or energy.

Think of it as a range of radio frequencies occupied by a modulated carrier wave, assigned to a service over which a device can operate. Bandwidth is also a capacity for data transfer of electrical communications system.

BDA                Battle Damage assessment

BER                Bit error rate

BLOS              Beyond line-of-sight

BNF                Bind and Fly – with custom transmitter

BRI                 Belt and Road Initiative

BR&T             Boeing Research and Technology

BSR                Bilinear Signal Representation

BSs                  Base Stations

BVR                Beyond visual range

c                      Speed of light ~ (3 x 108 m/s) [186,000 miles per sec] in vacuum named after Celeritas the Latin word for speed or velocity

c                      speed of sound (344 m/s) in air

C                     Combined methods of CR

C2 / C2W        Command and control / Command and Control Warfare

C3I                  Command, control, communications and Intelligence

C4                   Command, control, communications and computers

C4I                  Command, control, communications and computers, intelligence

C4ISR             Command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance &  reconnaissance

C4ISTAR        Command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, target

acquisition and reconnaissance

CA                  Collision Avoidance / Clear Acquisition (GPS) / Cyber Assault (aka CyA)

CAA               Control Acquisition cyber attack

CAS                Close Air Support / Common situational awareness

CASA             Civil Aviation Safety Authority

CASIC            China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation

C of A             Certificate of Airworthiness

CAP                Civil Air Publication

CAT                Collision Avoidance Threshold

CC / CyC        Cyber Crime

CCCI/II          Classical Cryptography Course Volume I/II (Nichols R. K., Classical Cryptography Course Volume I / II, 1996)

CCE                Cyber Counter Espionage

CCI                 Command control interface / Cyber Counterintelligence

CCS                Cyber Counter Sabotage

CCT                Cyber Counter Terrorism

CC-UAS         Counter-Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems

CD                  Conflict Detection

CDL                Common data link

CDMA            code division multiple access

CDR                Collision detection and resolution systems (automated SAA in UAS)

CEA                Cyber electromagnetic activities (Cyber, EW, Spectrum warfare)

CETC              Chinese Electronics Technology Group

CF                   Computer Forensics

CFTA              Continental Free Trade Area

CFT                Certificate of flight trials / Cross-functional teams

CHIMERA     Counter-electronic HPM Extended range base air defense

CI / CyI           Cyber Infiltration

CIA                 Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability / Central Intelligence Agency

CIAD              Cyber- Multi-layered Integrated Air Defense Systems

CIED              Computer improvised explosive device

CIN                 Common Information Network

CIR                 Color Infrared – artificial standard where NIR bands shifted so that humans can see the infrared reflectance

CLE                Airport code for Cleveland

C/N                 Carrier to Noise ratio in HAPS, => C/ N0

CM / CyM       Countermeasure / Cyber Manipulation

CN3                Communications / navigation network node

CNI                 Critical National Infrastructure

CNKI              China-North Korea-Iran technical weapons cooperation agreements

CNO               Chief Naval Operations

CNPC             Control and non-payload links

COA               Certificate of Waiver or Authorization

COB                Chief of the Boat

COMINT        Communications intelligence

COMJAM       Communications Jamming

COMSEC       Communications Security

CONOP(S)      Concepts of Operations

CONUS          Continental United States

COS                Continued Operational Safety

COTS              Commercial off-the-shelf

CPA                Closest Point of Approach

CPA Spoof      CPA spoof involves faking a possible collision with a target ship

CPL                 Commercial pilot’s license

CPNI               Center for Protection of National Infrastructure (UK)

CPRC              Communist Party of the Republic of China

CR                   Conflict Resolution / Close range / Cyber Raid (aka CyR)

CRH                Coaxial rotor helicopter

CRX                      Received Signal Power, watts

CS                   Control station

CSDP              Common Security and Defense Policy missions (EU)

CSR                Compact Surveillance Radar

CSfC               Commercial Solutions for Classified Program

CSIRO            Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization

CT                   Counter Terrorism / Counter Terrorism Mission

CTOL             Conventional take-off and landing

C-UAS            Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems (defenses / countermeasures)

CUAS             CSIRO Unmanned Aircraft Systems

CV                  Collision Volume

CW / CyW      Cyber Warfare

D                     distance from transmitter in Range equation (Adamy D. -0., 2015)

DA                  Danger area

Danger Close

Definition Nov 14, 2013 – 1) danger close is included in the “method-of-engagement” line of a call-for-fire request to indicate that friendly forces are close to the target. … Danger close is a term that is exclusive from risk estimate distance (RED) although the RED for 0.1 percent PI is used to define danger close for aircraft delivery.  Pi = Probability of incapacitation. 2) Definition of “danger close” (US DoD) In close air support, artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support fires, it is the term included in the method of engagement segment of a call for fire which indicates that friendly forces are within close proximity of the target.

DARO            Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office

DARPA          Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DAS                Detection by Acoustical Signature

dB                   decibels

DC                  Direct Current

DCPA             Distance between vessels approaching CPA

DDD               Dull, dangerous, and dirty

DDOS             Distributed Denial of Service cyber attack

DE                   Directed Energy

DEF CON       DEF CON is the world’s longest running and largest underground hacking conference.

DE / EP           Directed energy / Electromagnetic pulse

DEW               Directed energy weapons

DF                   Direction finding

DFCS              Digital Flight Control System

DHS                Department of Homeland Security

DIME              Diplomatic, information, military and economy

DIRCM           Directed Infrared Countermeasures

DIY                 Do-it-yourself (amateur built drones or modified racing drones)

D j                    Jammer location – to-target receiver location distance, in km, FM 34-40-7

DJ                    Data Jamming / Drone Jammer

DJI                  Popular and functional Chinese made drone series: Mavic, Phantom, Ryze, Matrix, Spark, Enterprise, Inspire, Tello {However, banned by USA Army} (Newman, 2017)

DL                   Downlink in HAPS

DLA                Date last accessed (usually a web reference)

DLI                 Data Link interface

DNA               Deoxyribonucleic acid

DoD                Department of Defense

DOF                Degrees of Freedom

DOS                Denial of Service cyber attack

DPM               Direct power management / Dynamic Power Management

DPRK             Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

D-R-O-N-E     FAA Guidance: Direct, Report, Observe, Notice &Execute

DSA                Detect, sense and avoid / Dynamic Sense-and-Act

DSS                 Decision Support System

DSSS              Direct sequence spread spectrum

D t                   Enemy transmitter location -to- target receiver location, in km, FM 34-40-7

DT                   Directional transmission / Department of Transport (UK)

DTDMA         Distributed Time Division Multiple Access (DTDMA) network radio system

DTED             Digital terrain evaluation data

DTF                 Drug Task Force

DTH                Direct-To-Home

DTI                 Direct Track & Identify

DTRA             Defense Threat Reduction Agency

DUO               Designated UAS operator

EA                   Electronic Attack

EARSC           European Association of Remote Sensing Companies

EAS                Equivalent airspeed

EAU                East Africa union comprising of Israel and six East African states, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan

(Eb / No)         Thermal noise power spectral density ratio

ECCM / EP     Electronic counter-countermeasures / Electronic Protection

ECM               Electronic countermeasures

ECR                Electronic combat reconnaissance

EDC                Estimated Date of Completion

EDEW            Effects of Directed Energy Weapons

EEZP              Exclusive economic Zone protection

EHS                Enhanced surveillance

EIRP               Effective isotopic radiated power

Electrolaser     Electroshock weapon that is also a DEW. Uses lasers to form electrically conductive laser-induced plasma charge

ELINT            Electronic Intelligence

ELT                Emergency locator transmitter

ECM               Electromagnetic compatibility

EM                  Electromagnetic

EMC               Electromagnetic compatibility

EME                Electromagnetic environment

EMI                Electromagnetic interference

EMO               Electromagnetic operations

EMP               Electromagnetic pulse

EMR               Electromagnetic Radiation

EMS                Electromagnetic Spectrum

EMSVIS         Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible Light

EMW              Electromagnetic Waves

EO                  Electro-optical (sensing) / Earth Observation

EOTS              Electro-optical targeting system

ERPJ                Effective radiated power of the jammer, in dBm

ERPS                Effective radiated power of the desired signal transmitter, in dBm

ESM / ES        Electronic support measures / Electronic warfare support / Earth station  &             ESM                         Electronic Signal Monitoring

EU                   European Union

EUNAVFOR  European Union Naval Force’s anti-piracy naval mission

EUTM             Somalia Military training mission in Somalia

EVTOL           Electric Vertical Take-off and Landing

EW                  Electronic warfare, see 9-15 & footnotes

F                      Field theory methods of CR

F                      Fundamental frequency is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform

f                       Frequency, cycles / second RRE)

Fo                    Resonant frequency of string, Hz see Eq. 20-5

F                      Frequency in MHz, FM 34-40-7

FAA                Federal Aviation Administration

FACE              Future Airborne Capability Environment

FAR                False Alarm Rates

FBL                 Fly-by-Light, a type of flight-control system where input command signals are sent to the actuators through the medium of optical-fiber …

FBW               Fly-by-wire

FCC                Federal Communications Commission

FCS                 Flight control systems / Flight Control Station

FDF                 Frequency Domain Filtering

FDM               frequency division multiplexing

FHSS              Frequency hopping spread spectrum

FIR                  Far Infrared (25-40) to (200-350) um

FIRES             definition (US DoD – JP 3-0) the use of weapon systems to create a specific lethal or nonlethal effect on a target.

FL                   Flight Level

FLIR               Forward-looking infrared

Fly-by-Wire     Predetermine flight mission path based on GPS coordinates

FMS                Flexible manufacturing system

Follow-Me      UAS autopilot automatically follows operator

Fom                 HAPS Figure of merit in upload /download link

FoV                 Field of view

FFOV              Forward Field of View

FRAGO          Fragmentary Order – to send timely changes of existing orders to a subordinate

FPV                 First Person View – live streaming video used in racing drones

FPGA              Field programmable gate array

FS                    Fixed service

FSS                 Fixed satellite service

FW                  Fixed wing

G                     Geometric methods of CR

G5S                 G5 Sahel (G5S) Joint Force, has membership of five states; Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Chad

GAO               General Accounting Office USA

gAR                Receiving Antenna Gain as a Factor

GBU               Guided Bomb Unit

GCHQ            Government Communications Headquarters (Britain)

GCS                Ground control station

GDPR             European Union’s (EU) General Data Protection Regulation

GDT                Ground data terminal

GEO                Geostationary Earth orbit satellite

GeoFence        A geo-fence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area

GLOW            Gross lift-off weight for a missile / rocket

GNSS              Global Navigation Satellite System

GLONASS     Global Satellite Navigational System

GPS                 Global Positioning System / Geo Fencing

GPS/INS         Use of GPS satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an inertial navigation system (INS). The method is applicable for any GNSS/INS system.

GPSSPOOF    Hack of GPS system affecting UAS commands

GPWS             Ground proximity warning system

G R                     The receiving antenna gain in the direction of the desired signal transmitter, dBi

G RJ                    Receiving antenna gain in the direction of the jammer, in dBi

GS                   Ground segment of HAPs

GSE                Ground support equipment

GSHM            Ground Station Handover Method

GSM               Global System for Mobile Communications

GT                   Game Theory methods of CR

G/T                  Ratio of the receive antenna gain to system noise temperature

(G /Ts) dB      Represents the figure of merit of the HAPS receiver, in dB

GT                    Gain of the transmit antenna, dB

GTA                  Ground -to -Air Defense

Hard damage   DEW complete vaporization of a target

Harmonic        Frequency, which is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency

H                     Elevation of the jammer location above sea level, feet, FM 34-40-7

HAE                High altitude endurance

HALE             High altitude – long endurance

HAPS              High Altitude Platforms (generally for wireless communications enhancements)

HAPS UAVs  UAVs dedicated to HAPS service (example to communicate via CNPC links)

HEAT             High-explosive anti-tank warhead

HELWS          High energy laser weapon system

HITL               Human in-the-loop

HMI                Human machine interface

HO                  Home Office (UK)

HPA                High power amplifier

HPL                High powered laser weapon

HPM               High powered microwave defense

H t                          Elevation of enemy transmitter location above sea level, in feet, FM 34-40-7

HUD               Heads-up display

HUMINT        Human intelligence (spy’s)

HVT                High value target (generally, for assassination)

I                       Sound intensity, W x m-2 [Source strength S / 4πr2] (Uni-wuppertal, 2019)

IA                    Information Assurance / Intentional cyber warfare attack

I-actors            Intentional Cyber Actors

IADS              Multi-layered integrated air defense systems

IAI                  Israeli Aerospace Industries

IAS                 Indicated airspeed

ICAO              International Civil Aviation Organization

I.C.B.C           International Center for Boundary Cooperation (China)

ICBM              Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles

ICGs               Information centers of gravity

ICS                  Internet Connection Sharing

ID                    Information Dominance / Inspection and Identification

IEDs                Improvised Explosive Devices

IEEE               Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IEWS              Intelligence, electronic warfare and sensors

IFF                  Identification, friend or foe

IFR                  Instrument flight rules

I&I                  Interchangeability and Interoperability

IIT                   Intentional Insider Threats

Imaging Sensors ARS sensors that build images

IL                    Intensity level of sound measured, dB, Eq. 20-2

IMINT            Imagery intelligence

IMM                Interacting-multiple-models tracker

IMU                Inertial Measurement Unit

INS                 Inertial navigation system

IMU                Inertial Measurement Unit

INFOSEC       Information Security

IO                    Information Operations, see Figure 9-11 & footnotes

IOC                 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

IOR                 India Ocean Region

IoT                  Internet of things

IIoT                 Industrial Internet of things

IPL                  Insitu Pacific Limited

IR                    Infrared Sensors

IRST               Infrared search and tracking

IS                    Information Superiority

ISIS                 Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS)

ISR                  Intelligence, Reconnaissance and Surveillance UAS Platform

ISTAR            Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance

IT                    Information Technology

ITU                 International Telecommunications Union – Standards Organization

ITU-R             International Telecommunications Union – Radio Sector

IW                   Information Warfare

JAGM             Joint-Air-to-Ground Missile

JAUS              Joint architecture for UAS

JDAM             Joint direct attack munitions

JFO                 Joint fires observer

JP                    Joint Publication – followed by military identifier

JDAM             Joint Direct Attack Munition

JNIM               Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin

JOAC              Joint Operational Access Concept

JOPES             Joint Operation and Planning System / Execution System

JP                    Joint Publication

J / S                 = the ratio of the jammer power to the desired signal power at the input to the receiver being jammed in dB

JTAC               Joint Terminal Attack Controller;

JTIDS              Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) is an L band DTDMA

K                     Boltzmann’s constant (Noise component, RRE) (1.38 x 10 -23 J/K), Kelvin

K                     2 for jamming frequency modulated receivers (jamming tuner accuracy), FM 34-40-7

KAMIKAZI   Means “Divine Wind,” Tactic best known for Japanese suicide A/C attacks on Allied Capital Vessels in WWII. UAS TEAMS or SWARMS could be directed in the same way.

KE                   Kinetic energy

KEW               Kinetic energy weapons

KM                  Katiba Macina Groups

L                      λ / 2 in Eq. 20-5

LAANC          Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability

LASER           “A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser” originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently, spatially and temporally. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances (collimation), enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence, which allows them to emit light with a very narrow spectrum, i.e., they can emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light as short as a femtosecond. Used: for military and law enforcement devices for marking targets and measuring range and speed.” (Wiki-L, 2018)

Laser JDAM   Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition – dumb bombs, all weather precision –guided munitions. Guided by an integrated inertial guidance system.

Laser rangefinder Scope to assist targeting of munitions. Countermeasure: laser-absorbing paint

LGWs             Laser-guided weapons

Latency           Processing difference between time interval signal is transmitted and signal is received

LCDR             Lieutenant Commander

L/D                  Lift to drag ratio

LDCM            Low Duty cycle methods

LEO                Low Earth Orbit Satellite

LGB                Laser-guided bomb, a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser guidance to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided one

LGTF              Liptako-Gourma task force (LGTF) established by Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to secure their shared border region

LIDAR           Light (Imaging) Detection and Ranging

LFS                 Free- Space Loss as a Factor

LIPC               laser-induced plasma channel

LJ                     Propagation loss from jammer to receiver, in dBi

LMADIS        Light Marine Air Defense Integrated System (family of C-UAS systems)

LMM               Lightweight Multi-role Missile (by Thales)

LOS                Line-of-sight / Loss of Signal / Loss of Separation

LOSAS           Low cost Scout UAV Acoustic System

LPA                Log periodic array

LPI                  Low Probability of Intercept

LR                   Long range

LRA                Long range artillery

LRAD             Long Range Acoustic Device (Weapon) (Yunmonk Son, 2015)

LRCS              Low radar cross section

LRE                Launch and recovery element

LRF                 Laser rangefinder

LS                            Losses existing in the system (lumped together), dB (RRE)

LS                    The propagation loss from the desired signal transmitter, in dBm

LSDB              Laser Small Diameter Bomb

LST                 Laser spot trackers

LTA                Lighter than Air (airship) /Low noise amplifier

LTE /LTE+     Long Term Evolution – refers to mobile telecommunications coverage

LWIR              Long wave Infrared (sensor or camera)

M                     Mass in Eq. 20-5

MA                  Multi-agent methods of CR

MAD               Magnetic anomaly detection

MADIS           Marine Air Defense Integrated System

MAE               Medium-altitude endurance

MAGTF          Marine air-ground task force

MALDRONE Malware injected into critical SAA for UAS

MALE             Medium-altitude, long endurance UAS

MALE-T         Medium altitude long endurance – tactical UAS

MAME            Medium altitude, medium endurance.

MASINT         Measurement and Signal Intelligence

MATS             Mobile Aircraft Tracking System

M-AUDS        Mobile Anti-UAV Defense System

MAV               Micro-air vehicle

Maverick        AGM -65 (USA) Missile

MCE               Mission control element

MCM              Mine countermeasures

MCU               Master Control Unit

MDR               Missed Detection Rates

MEB               Marine expeditionary brigade (14,500 marines and sailors);

MEMS            Micro-electromechanical systems

MEO               Medium Earth Orbit satellite

MFD               Multi Function display

MGTOW         Maximum gross takeoff weight

MHT               Multiple-hypotheses-testing

MIM                Man in the Middle cyber attack

MINUSMA    Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali

MIR                Mid Infrared 5 to (25-40) um

MIT                 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MLRS             Multi launch rocket systems

MLU               Mid-life upgrade

MMI                Man-machine interface

MORS             Military Operations Research Society

MPA               Maritime patrol aircraft

MPI                 Message-passing interface

MPO               Mission payload operator

MR                  Medium range

MRE               Medium-range endurance

MS                  Mobile service

MSL / AGL    MSL altitudes are measured from a standard datum, which is roughly equal to the average altitude of the ocean. So, an aircraft traveling 5,000 feet directly above a mountain that’s 3,000 feet tall would have an altitude of 5,000 feet Above Ground Level (AGL) and 8,000 feet MSL.

MSR                Maritime Silk Road (China)

MTCR             missile Technology Control Regime

MTI                 Moving target indication

MTOM            Maximum take-off mass

Modulation     Signal Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted

MORS             Military Operations Research Society

MTOW            Maximum takeoff weight of an aircraft at which the pilot can attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.

MTS                Multi Spectral Targeting System

MTTR             Multitarget tracking radar/Mean time to repair

MUAV            Mini-UAV or maritime UAV

MUJAO          Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa

MUM              Manned-unmanned teaming

MW                 Microwave

MWIR             Midwave Infrared

MW                 microwave towers

N                     Available Noise power, watts for HAPS

N                     Terrain and ground conductivity factor, FM 34-40-7

5 = very rough terrain with poor ground conductivity

4 = moderately rough terrain with fair to good ground conductivity

3 = Farmland terrain with good ground conductivity

2 = Level terrain with good ground conductivity[1]

The elevation of the jammer location and the enemy transmitter location does not include the height of the antenna above the ground or the length of the antenna. It is the location deviation above sea level.

NAC               Network Access Control

NACA            National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics

NAS                National Airspace (USA)

NASAMS II   National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System

NATO             North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NAV               Nano-air vehicle / NAV data message for GPS systems

NBC                Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

NCO               Network-centric operations

NCW               Network Centric Warfare

NDRC             National Development and Reform Commission (China)

NEC                Network enabled capability

NGO               Non-Governmental Organization

NIEM              National Information Exchange Model

NIR                 near Infrared

NLOS             Non-line-of-sight

NM                  Nautical Miles

NMAC            A NMAC is defined as an incident associated with the operation of an aircraft in which a possibility of collision occurs as a result of proximity of less than 500 feet to another aircraft, or a report is received from a pilot or a flight crewmember stating that a collision hazard existed between two or more aircraft.

NMLA            the National Movement for Liberation of Azawad (Tuareg Rebellion)

NO                  Numerical Optimization methods of CR

NOLO             No onboard live operator (USN)

NOTAM         Notice to airmen

NPD                Near Peer Doctrine

NPS                 National Park Service

NSA                National Security Agency (US)

NSRL              New Silk Road Sea / Land routes (Chinese)

NTIA              National Telecommunications and Information Administration

NTSB              National Transportation Safety Board

NTT                 Non-Threat Traffic

NULLO          Not using live operator (USAF)

O                     Other methods of CR

OEM               Original Equipment Manufacture

OIO                 Offensive Information Operations

OLOS             Out-of-the-line-of-sight

OODA            Decision Loop: Observe, Orient, Decide, Act

OPA                Optionally piloted aircraft

OPAV             Optionally piloted air vehicle

OPSEC           Operations Security

OSI                 Open systems interconnection

OTH                Over- the- horizon

P                       Isotropic source of an electromagnetic pulse of peak power, Mw

PANCAS        Passive Acoustic Non-Cooperative Collision Alert System

PB                   Particle Beams, Particle beams are large numbers of atomic or subatomic particles moving at relativistic velocities.

PCAS              Persistent close air support

PCS                 Personal Communication Services

PEIRP             Transmitter’s effective isotropic radiated power, watts

PFMS              Predictive Flight Management System

PEMSIA         Partnership in Environmental Management of the Seas of East Asia

PGB                Precision guided bomb

PGM               Precision guided missile

PHOTINT       Photographic intelligence (usually sky – ground)

PHX                Airport code for Phoenix

PI                    Probability of Incapacitation

PII                   Personal Identifiable Information

PIM                 Position of intended movements/Previously intended movements

PIT                  Proximity Intruder Traffic

P j                           Minimum amount of jammer power output required, in watts, FM 34-40-7

PL                   Power level, dB, Eq. 20-1

PLA                Chinese People’s Liberation Army

PLAN             Peoples Liberation Army Navy (China)

PLC                 Programmable Logic Controllers

PMIAA           Permissions Management: Identification, Authentication and Authorization

PNF                 Plug and Fly with custom transmitter, receiver, battery and charger

PO                   Psychological Operations

POS                 Position and Orientation System

POV                Point of View

PPP                 Precise Point Positioning

PPS                 Precise positioning service (GPS)

PRC                Peoples Republic of China (China)

Primum Non Nocere – First Do No Harm (Latin)

PSD                 Power Spectral Density

PREACT         Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism (PREACT)

PRF                 Pulse repetition frequency codes

PRM                Precision Runway Monitor

PSH                 Plan-symmetric helicopter

PSR                 Primary Surveillance Radar

P t                     Power output of the enemy drone, in watts, FM 34-40-7

PW /PSYWAR Psychological Warfare

PWO               Principal Warfare officer

P(Y)                Precise Signal (GPS)

QOS                Quality of Service in HAPs

QUAS             QUT UAS

QUT                Queensland University of Technology

R                     1 /Tb is the bit rate (b/s) in link equation

R4                           Energy density received at detected target range, R, nm

RA                  Resolution Advisory

RAC                Range air controller

RADAR          Radio Detection and Ranging

RADINT         Radar intelligence

RAM               Radar absorbing materials

RAS                Radar absorbing structure

RAST              Recovery, assist, and traverse

RB                   Rule-based methods (Conflict Resolution)

RBW               Red- breasted Woodpecker

RCE                Remote Code Execution

RCO                Remote-control operator

RCS                Radar cross-section

RCTA             Surf Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics

RED                Risk Estimate Distance

RES                 Radio electronic systems

RF                   Radio Frequency

RGB                Red Green Blue for VIS camera

RGT                Remote ground terminal

Rician PDF     Rician probability density function

RIMPAC        Rim of the Pacific Exercise – Maritime

RL                   Ramp launched

RMS                Reconnaissance management system /Root-mean-square

RN                  Ryan-Nichols Qualitative Risk Assessment Equations 17-2, 17-3

RNRA             Ryan – Nichols Attack / Defense Scenario Risk Assessment for Cyber cases

ROA               Remotely operated aircraft

ROC                Republic of China (Taiwan) / Regional Operations Center (USA)

RPA                Remotely piloted aircraft

RPH                Remotely piloted helicopter

RPV                Remotely piloted vehicle

RR                   Radio regulations

RRE                Radar Range Equation

RSA                RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adelman) -authors of early public –key cryptographic system

RSTA              Reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition

RTA                Dubai Roads and Transport Authority

RTF                 Off- the- shelf, Ready -to -Fly

RTK                Real Time Kinematic

RTS                 Remote tracking station/Request to send/Release to service

RTU                Remote Terminal Unit

RUAV            Relay UAV

RWR               Radar warning receiver

S                      Intensity at surface of sphere

SA                   Situational Awareness

SAA                Sense and Avoid &

SAA                Sense and Act Systems; replaces See and Avoid function of a human pilot

SAASM          Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module

SAE                Society of Automotive Engineers

SAM               Surface to Air Missile

SAMPLE        Survivable autonomous mobile platform, long-endurance

SAP                 Systems Applications and Products also the name of a company

SAR                Synthetic aperture radar / Search and rescue- especially using helicopters

SAS                 Safety Assurance System

SATCOM       Satellite communications

SCADA          Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems

SCHEMA       Security Incident Identification

SCIF               Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility

SCS                 Shipboard control system (or station) / Stereo Camera System / South China Sea

SE                   Synthetic environment

SEA                Airport code for Seattle

SEAD             Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses

SECDEF         Secretary of Defense

Shadowing      Airframe shadowing – UAV- Ground signal degradation during maneuver

SEZ                 Special economic zones

SHM               Simple harmonic motion – represented by sign wave

SHORAD       Short Range Air Defense systems

SIGINT           Signals Intelligence

Signature         UAS detection by acoustic, optical, thermal and radio /radar

SJM                 Salafi-Jihad Movement

SKASaC         Seeking airborne surveillance and control

SKYNET        Fictional artificial intelligence system that becomes self-aware

SLAMRAAM Surface launched AMRAAM

SM                  Separation Management

SMC                Single moving camera

SME                Subject matter expert

SMR                Single main rotor

S/N                  S / N = is one pulse received signal to noise ratio, dB; Signal to Noise ratio at HAPS receiver

SOA                Static Obstacle – Avoidance system

Soft damage    DEW disruption to a UAS computer

SPL                 Sound pressure level, dB = 20 Log p / po [ measured pressures to reference pressure]          see Eq. 20-3,4; 6-7

SPS                 Standard position service (GPS)

Spoofing         A Cyber-weapon attack that generates false signals to replace valid ones

Spot sensors    ARS sensors that measure single locations without image library.

SQL                SQL Injection – common malevolent code injection technique

SR                   Short range

SRBM             Short range ballistic missile, ex SCUD missile

SRL                 Systems readiness level

SSA                 Static Sense-and -Act

SSBN              Ballistic missile submarine force

SSP                 Smart Skies Project

SSR                 Secondary Surveillance Radar

SST                 Self – Separation Threshold

STANAG 4856 Standard interfaces of UAV Control System for NATO UAV

STK                 Satellite toolkit

STOL              Short take-off and landing

sUAS              Small Unmanned Aircraft System

SUAVE          Small UAV engine

SWARM         High level, dangerous collaboration of UAS, UUV, or unmanned boats

SWAT             Special Weapons and Tactics (police / paramilitary)

SWAP             Size, weight and power

SWIR              Shortwave infrared, 1400-3000 nm, 1.4 -3.0 um wavelength range

SZ                   Safety Zone is defined as the horizontal and vertical separation criteria which form a cylindrical airspace volume around the UAS. In figure 3-2 that volume is defined by 1000 ft radius and 200 ft height. It is assumed that initially the UAS is in the center with 100 ft above and below the A/C.

T                      In Range equation & environment, strength of a received signal, function of square or fourth power of distance, d, from transmitter (Adamy D. -0., 2015)

T                      Time, sec (RRE)

T                      Tension in Eq.20-5

TA                   Traffic Advisory

TAC                Target air controller

TACAN          Tactical air navigation

TAR                Antenna noise temperature, Kelvin

TAS                 True airspeed

TBO                Time between overhauls

TC                   Type certificate

TCAS              Traffic alert and collision avoidance system

TCPA              Time to reach Closest Point of Approach

Te                    Effective input noise temperature, Kelvin,

TEAM (UAS) High level, dangerous collaboration of UAS, UUV, or unmanned boats; differs from SWARM in that it has a UAS Team Leader, (TL) where SWARM does not. TL directs the UAS team and is the primary counter UAS target to disrupt.

TETRA           Terrestrial Trunked Radio for terrestrial terminals / services

Thermobaric   Metal augmented charge

THOR             Tactical high-power operational responder

TIR                  Thermal infrared = 8000 – 15000 nm, 8 -15 um

TL                   Team Leader

TO                   take-off

Tort                 A tort is an act or omission that gives rise to injury or harm to another and amounts to a civil wrong for which courts impose liability.

TP                    Trajectory Prediction

TRANSCOM  U.S. Transportation Command networks

TRL                 Technology readiness level

TS                    Measured noise temperature, Kelvin units above absolute zero

TSTCP            Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership. TSCTP partners include Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.

TT & C           Telemetry, tracking and command

TUAV             Tactical UAV

UA                  Unmanned Aircraft (non-cooperative and potential intruder)

U-Actors         Unintentional Cyber Actors

UAE                United Arab Emirates

UAM               Urban Air Mobility (vehicle)

UAPO             Unmanned Aircraft Program Office

UAS                Unmanned aircraft system

UASCdr          Unmanned aircraft system commander

UASIPP          UAS Integration Pilot Program

UAS-p             UAS pilot

UAV               Unmanned aerial vehicle

UAV-p            UAV pilot

UBR                Uplink bit rate, Mb/s

UCAR             Unmanned combat armed rotorcraft

UCARS          UAV common automated recovery system

UCAV            Unmanned combat air vehicle

UCWA / UA   Unintentional cyber warfare attack

UGCS             Unmanned Ground Control Station

UGS                Unmanned ground-based station

UGV               Unmanned ground vehicle

UHF                Ultra High Frequency, 300 MHz – 3 GHz

UIT                 Unintentional Insider Threats

UK                  United Kingdom

UL                   Upload link

UMTS             Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

U.N.                United Nations

UNESCO        United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNICEF         United Nations Children’s Fund

USD                Unmanned surveillance drone

UTM               Unmanned Traffic Management

UTV                Unmanned target vehicle

UUV               Unmanned underwater vehicle

UUNs / DUNSs Urgent / deliberate universal needs statements

V                     Visible

VFR                Visual flight rules

VIKI               Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence

VLA                Very light aircraft

VLJ                 Very Light Jet

VLAR             Vertical launch and recovery

VLOS             Visual Line of Sight

VMC               Visual Meteorological Conditions

VNIR              Visible light and near infrared 400 – 1400 nm, 0.4 – 1.4 um wavelength range

Voloport          Landing site for Volcopter

VTOL             Vertical take-off and landing

VTUAV          Vertical take-off UAV

WEF                World Economic Forum

WEZ               Weapon Engagement Zone

WMD              Weapons of Mass Destruction

WRC               World Radio Conference Standards Organization

XO                  Executive Officer of Naval vessel

ZIGBEE or KILLERBEE      Sniffing / penetration tools specific to UAS


Greek Symbols

λ                      Wavelength in Hz, c / f where c= speed of light 344 m/s and f = frequency, Hz.

Σ                      Radar Cross Sectional Area, m2




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Cyber terminology from: Nichols, R. K. (Sept. 5, 2008) Cyber Counterintelligence & Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF) Needs – Talking Points & (Randall K. Nichols J. J., 2018) & (Nichols R. K., Hardening US Unmanned Systems Against Enemy Counter Measures, 2019) & (Randall K. Nichols D. , Chapter 20 Acoustic CM & IFF Libraries V SWARMS Rev 1 05142019, 2018) & (Randall K. Nichols and Lekkas, 2002)& (NIST, September 2012)

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