Chapter 10: UAS, the Fourth Amendment and Privacy [Shay]
Appendix A – Summary of UAS Provisions in H.R. 302 (Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, 2018)
SEC. 343. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT TEST RANGES.
The Administrator is directed to carry out and update a program for the use of six test ranges to facilitate the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace. The program will coordinate with the Next Generation Air Transportation System and test range operators to develop standards for UAS that support UAS capabilities specific to beyond visual line of sight operations, nighttime operations, operations over people, operation of multiple UAS, and unmanned aircraft system traffic management. The Administrator is directed to collaborate with the Center of Excellence for Unmanned Aircraft Systems to carry out research supporting the above operations. Waivers for operations at test sites to support the above research will be streamlined.
SEC. 344. SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT IN THE ARCTIC.
The Secretary of Transportation shall develop a plan to designate permanent areas in the Arctic where small unmanned aircraft may operate 24 hours per day, for research and commercial purposes. These operations include UAS operations beyond visual line of sight and below 2,000 feet in altitude.
SEC. 345. SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SAFETY STANDARDS.
The Administrator shall establish risk-based safety standards related to design, production, and modification of small UAS. The geographic location, altitude, and sense and avoid capabilities shall be taken into consideration when establishing such standards using a set of performance-based requirements. Manufacturers will be required to provide the FAA: aircraft operating instructions, maintenance procedures, be subject to inspections by FAA to ensure compliance of aircraft and be required to provide a statement of compliance to the FAA for UAS platforms. The Center of Excellence for Unmanned Aircraft will establish an UAS research facility to study appropriate safety standards.
SEC. 346. PUBLIC UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.
The Administrator shall create a streamlined process for issuance of a certificate of authorization to facilitate the capability of public agencies to develop and use test ranges. Government public safety agencies may operate an UAS under 4.4 pounds within visual line of sight, less than 400 feet above the ground, during daylight and at least 5 miles from an airport.
SEC. 347. SPECIAL AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.
The Secretary shall use a risk-based approach to determine if certain UAS may operate safely in the national airspace prior to the completion of certain rulemakings if operations do not create a hazard to users of the national airspace system or the public.
SEC. 348. CARRIAGE OF PROPERTY BY SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR COMPENSATION FOR HIRE.
Within one year of bill passage, the FAA shall update existing regulations to authorize the carriage of property by operators of small UAS for compensation or hire, considering performance-based requirements and varying levels of risk to other aircraft and people or property on the ground. The FAA shall create a certification process pending a rulemaking for persons seeking the carriage of property for hire.
SEC. 349. EXCEPTION FOR LIMITED RECREATIONAL OPERATIONS OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT.
This section states that a person may operate a small UAS without certification or operating authority from the FAA if: the aircraft is flown for recreational purposes, the aircraft is operated in accordance with a community- based organization’s safety guidelines developed in coordination with the FAA, is flown within visual line of sight, does not interfere with manned aircraft, is flown below 400 feet above the ground, the operator passes an online aeronautical knowledge and safety test, and the aircraft is registered with the FAA. The FAA may periodically update the required community-based organization standards including the marking and remote identification requirements flying under these recreational parameters.
SEC. 350. USE OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.
The Administrator shall update standards and procedures for the use of UAS at institutions of higher education for education and research purposes.
SEC. 351. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS INTEGRATION PILOT PROGRAM (IPP).
The Administrator shall improve the acceptance of applications from state, local, or tribal jurisdictions for the IPP to accelerate the safe integration of UAS in the national air space with the focus of testing and validating new concepts, including beyond visual line of sight operations, detect and avoid technologies, command and control links, navigation, weather, and human factors. IPP operations are limited to operation during daylight hours, and limited operations over public roads and sporting events. The data from IPP operations will be made available to the FAA to inform future rulemaking and standards.
SEC. 352. PART 107 TRANSPARENCY AND TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS.
No later than 30 days after bill passage, the Administrator shall publish a sample of the safety justifications offered by applicants for small UAS waivers and airspace authorizations that have been approved by the Administrator. The Administrator shall review the authorization process to provide real time confirmation and review of application status capabilities.
SEC. 353. EMERGENCY EXEMPTION PROCESS.
The Administrator shall update the Special Government Interest process for local law enforcement agencies and first responders to use UAS in response to catastrophe, disaster, or other emergency situations in addition to developing best practices for such uses.
SEC. 354. TREATMENT OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT OPERATING UNDERGROUND.
An unmanned aircraft system that is operated underground for mining purposes shall not be subject to regulation or enforcement by the FAA under relevant law.
SEC. 355. PUBLIC UAS OPERATIONS BY TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS.
This section amends a section of the U.S. Code relating to public UAS operations by tribal governments.
SEC. 356. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR KNOW BEFORE YOU FLY CAMPAIGN.
The FAA is appropriated $1,000,000 for each fiscal year 2019-2023 for the Know Before You Fly educational campaign to broaden UAS safety awareness.
UAS operations shall be carried out in a manner that respects and protects personal privacy consistent with the United States Constitution and federal, state, and local law.
SEC. 358. UAS PRIVACY REVIEW.
The Comptroller General of the United States National Telecommunication and Information Administration shall review privacy issues and concerns associated with UAS operations. Such a review will include analysis of the response to the Presidential memorandum titled “Promoting Economic Competitiveness While Safeguarding Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties in Domestic Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems,” dated February 15, 2015, as well as examine existing federal law related to personal privacy, identify specific issues and concerns that may limit the civil or criminal remedies regarding inappropriate operation of UAS, and identify deficiencies in federal, state, and local privacy protections. Such findings will be submitted in a report to Congress 180 days after passage of this bill.
SEC. 359. STUDY ON FIRE DEPARTMENT AND EMERGENCY SERVICE AGENCY USE OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.
The Administrator shall conduct a study on the use of UAS by fire departments and emergency service agencies regarding how such entities currently use UAS, obstacles to greater use of UAS by these entities, ways to provide greater support of UAS use by these entities, analysis of laws or regulations that present a barrier to career, combination, and volunteer fire department use of UAS, airspace limitations of emergency use of UAS, roles of UAS in fire/emergency services, and technical challenges to greater adoption of UAS by fire departments and emergency agencies.
SEC. 360. STUDY ON FINANCING OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SERVICES.
The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study within 60 days of passage of the bill that studies appropriate fee mechanisms to recover costs of regulation and safety oversight of UAS and air navigation services for UAS. The study shall consider any recommendations of the Drone Advisory Committee, the costs incurred by the FAA for regulation and safety oversight of UAS, general classes of UAS activity, the number of FAA employees dedicated to UAS programs, the use of privately-operated unmanned traffic management (UTM) systems, and the projected growth of UAS, among other factors. A report of appropriate fee mechanisms will be provided to Congress 180 days after the passage of the bill.
SEC. 361. REPORT ON UAS AND CHEMICAL AERIAL APPLICATION.
No later than one year after passage of the bill the FAA shall submit to Congress a report evaluating which aviation safety requirements under Part 137 of title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations should apply to UAS engaged in aerial spraying of chemicals for agriculture purposes.
SEC. 362. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SAFETY.
It is the sense of Congress that UAS operations near airports pose a significant safety concern. The Administrator should pursue remedies available, including referrals to other government agencies for criminal investigations with respect to persons who operate unmanned aircraft in an unsafe manner. The Administrator should prioritize measures to educate the public about operating UAS over areas that have temporary flight restrictions in place due to the risk of wildfires, as well as partner with state and local law enforcement to enforce laws so that UAS do not interfere with efforts of emergency responders. Manufacturers should take steps to educate consumers about safe and lawful UAS operations.
SEC. 363. PROHIBITION REGARDING WEAPONS.
Unless authorized by the Administrator, a person may not operate a UAS that is equipped or armed with a dangerous weapon. Persons in violation are liable for a civil penalty not more than $25,000 for each violation.
SEC. 364. U.S. COUNTER-UAS SYSTEM REVIEW OF INTERAGENCY COORDINATION PROCESSES.
No later than 60 days after passage of this bill the Administrator shall review agencies currently authorized to operate Counter-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (C-UAS). The review should include the process of interagency coordination of C-UAS activity, standards for operation of C-UAS, safety of the NAS, protecting individuals’ property on the ground, non-interference with avionics of manned aircraft and traffic control systems, operational procedures and protocols during C-UAS operations, adequate training for persons using C-UAS systems, best practices of C-UAS systems, and current airspace authorization information from LAANC. The Administrator shall report to congress on the above described review 180 days after passage of the bill.
SEC. 365. COOPERATION RELATED TO CERTAIN COUNTER UAS TECHNOLOGY.
The Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of Defense to streamline deployment of C-UAS in the national airspace.
SEC. 366. STRATEGY FOR RESPONDING TO PUBLIC SAFETY THREATS AND ENFORCEMENT UTILITY OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.
Within one year of passage of the bill, the FAA shall develop a comprehensive strategy to provide outreach to state and local governments, local law enforcement agencies, and first responders on how to identify and respond to public safety threats posed by UAS, in addition to opportunities to use UAS to enhance effectiveness of local law enforcement and emergency responders. The FAA shall establish a website for the above entities that provides guidance on these topics.
SEC. 367. INCORPORATION OF FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION OCCUPATIONS RELATING TO UNMANNED AIRCRAFT INTO VETERANS EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS OF THE ADMINISTRATION.
The FAA will work with the Veterans Affairs Department to determine whether occupations in the Administration relating to UAS can be incorporated into the Veterans’ Employment Program.
SEC. 368. PUBLIC UAS ACCESS TO SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.
The Secretary of Transportation shall issue guidance for the expedited and timely access to special use airspace for public UAS to assist federal, state, local, or tribal law enforcement organizations in conducting law enforcement, emergency response, or other activities.
SEC. 369. APPLICATIONS FOR DESIGNATION.
This section makes corrections to now consider railroad facilities as critical infrastructure that could potentially restrict the nearby operation of UAS. It also mandates that by 31 March the Administrator will publish an NPRM regarding how to carry out the requirements outlined in this section.
SEC. 370. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON ADDITIONAL RULE-MAKING AUTHORITY.
It is the sense of Congress that UAS beyond visual line of sight operations, operations at night, and operations over people have tremendous potential to enhance commercial and academic use, spur economic growth, improve emergency response as it relates to critical infrastructure like roads, bridges, utilities, water and power, ultimately speeding response times. Integrating UAS safely into the national air space including the above operations should be a top priority of the FAA as it pursues additional rulemakings.
SEC. 371. ASSESSMENT OF AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT.
The Secretary of Transportation and the National Academy of Public Administration will estimate and assess compliance of small UAS registrations pursuant to the FAA rule “Registration and Marking Requirements for Small Unmanned Aircraft.” The Secretary shall report to Congress the findings of the assessment one year after passage of this bill.
SEC. 372. ENFORCEMENT.
The Administrator shall establish a pilot program to take advantage of available remote identification technologies for purposes of safety and enforcement of UAS operators not in compliance with applicable federal laws and regulations. The pilot program will establish a mechanism for the public and law enforcement to report UAS operations that violate federal laws and regulations. The data from that reporting shall be reported to Congress one year after passage of the bill.
SEC. 373. FEDERAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES.
A study will be conducted on the roles of federal, state, local, and tribal governments in regulating low-altitude operations of UAS. The study shall include the state of law federally and locally as it pertains to UAS, potential gaps in authority, analysis of regulatory consistency, and infrastructure requirements necessary to monitor low-altitude UAS operations.
SEC. 374. SPECTRUM.
The FAA shall provide the relevant Congressional Committees of Jurisdiction a report on UAS allocation of Aeronautical Mobile R Service (AM(R)S) and control links for UAS by the World Radio Conferences in 2007 (L-band, 960-1164 MHz) and 2012 (C-band, 5030-5091 MHz) for operations within the UTM system or outside of such system. The report will address operation barriers to using the spectrum and determine if some spectrum frequencies are not suitable for UAS use.
SEC. 375. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION AUTHORITY.
SEC. 376. PLAN FOR FULL OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (UTM)
FAA and NASA shall develop a plan to allow the implementation of UTM services that expand operations beyond visual line of sight and ensure the safety and security of all aircraft as established in the FAA Extension, Safety, and Security Act of 2016. The UTM system pilot program will work with industry stakeholders to allow testing of UAS operations in airspace above test ranges including IPP sites. Testing of remote identification and tracking technologies is permitted and will be evaluated by the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Identification and Tracking Aviation Rulemaking Committee. Under this pilot program, blanket waiver authority will be granted to UAS operators by a UTM pilot program selectee that otherwise would fall under a case-by-case approval basis. The UTM pilot program will develop safety standards and outline roles and responsibilities of industry and government in establishing UTM services that allows commercial and noncommercial operations. This section outlines a number of additional logistical details to be considered in the implementation of the UTM pilot program that are more appropriate to be described in a separate forum.
SEC. 377. EARLY IMPLEMENTATION OF CERTAIN UTM SERVICES.
No later than 120 days from passage of this bill the FAA will determine if certain UTM services may operate safely in the national airspace system. If the FAA determines that certain UTM services may operate safely in the national airspace, then requirements for safe operations will be established. The Administrator will provide expedited procedures for making the assessment and determinations where the UTM services will be provided primarily or exclusively in airspace above areas in which UAS operations pose low risk, such as croplands and areas that are not congested.
SEC. 378. SENSE OF CONGRESS.
SEC. 379. COMMERCIAL AND GOVERNMENTAL OPERATORS.
The FAA should make available by website any certification of waiver or authorization, a spreadsheet of UAS registrations with relevant details, description of UAS operations in general locations and expirations of those operations, links to any applicable privacy laws associated with those operations, a list of any operations that collect personably identifiable information and relevant details of the collection of data, and details of the operations of the UAS including location, date, time, etc.
SEC. 380. TRANSITION LANGUAGE.
This section ensures that certain orders, determinations, rules, and other actions based on authority from the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 continue to have legal effect after their appeal or recodification.
SEC. 381. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS IN RESTRICTED BUILDINGS OR GROUNDS.
This section amends the United States Code to make it a crime to knowingly operate UAS with the intent to enter or operate within or above restricted areas.
SEC. 382. PROHIBITION. § 40A. OPERATION OF UNATHORIZED UNMANNED AIRCRAFT OVER WILDFIRES
Any person who operates an UAS and knowingly or recklessly interferes with a wildfire suppression or emergency response efforts related to wildfire suppression shall be fined or imprisoned for not more than two years.
SEC. 383. AIRPORT SAFETY AND AIRSPACE HAZARD MITIGATION AND ENFORCEMENT.
The FAA shall work with Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to ensure that technologies that are used for UAS mitigation do not adversely impact or interfere with safe airport operations, navigation, air traffic services, or the national air space. The FAA shall develop a plan to authorize, permit, and certify UAS mitigation systems and charter an Aviation Rulemaking Committee to provide recommendations on the matter. The FAA shall test UAS mitigation technology at five airports through year 2023. These activities are exempt from laws that previously restrict such activity like the Aircraft Sabotage Act, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986, and the Wiretap Act.
SEC. 384. UNSAFE OPERATION OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT.
Any person that operate an UAS and knowingly interferes with a manned aircraft or an airport, including the runway exclusion zone, shall be fined or face up to one year in jail. If serious bodily harm occurs, then UAS operators face a fine and up to 10 years of jail time.
Appendix B – Summary of CFR 14 Part 107 (Federal Aviation Administration, 2016)
Part 107. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS.
- Unmanned aircraft must weigh less than 55 lbs. (25 kg).
- Visual line-of-sight (VLOS) only; the unmanned aircraft must remain within VLOS of the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within VLOS of the visual observer.
- At all times the small unmanned aircraft must remain close enough to the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS for those people to be capable of seeing the aircraft with vision unaided by any device other than corrective lenses.
- Small unmanned aircraft may not operate over any persons not directly participating in the operation, not under a covered structure, and not inside a covered stationary vehicle.
- Daylight-only operations, or civil twilight (30 minutes before official sunrise to 30 minutes after official sunset, local time) with appropriate anti-collision lighting.
- Must yield right of way to other aircraft.
- May use visual observer (VO) but not required.
- First-person view camera cannot satisfy “see-and-avoid” requirement but can be used as long as requirement is satisfied in other ways.
- Maximum groundspeed of 100 mph (87 knots).
- Maximum altitude of 400 feet AGL or, if higher than 400 feet AGL, remain within 400 feet of a structure.
- Minimum weather visibility of 3 miles from control station.
- Operations in Class B, C, D and E airspace are allowed with the required ATC permission.
- Operations in Class G airspace are allowed without ATC permission.
- No person may act as a remote pilot in command or VO for more than one unmanned aircraft operation at one time.
- No operations from a moving aircraft.
- No operations from a moving vehicle unless the operation is over a sparsely populated area.
- No careless or reckless operations.
- No carriage of hazardous materials.
- Requires preflight inspection by the remote pilot in command.
- A person may not operate a small unmanned aircraft if he or she knows or has reason to know of any physical or mental condition that would interfere with the safe operation of a small UAS.
- Foreign-registered small unmanned aircraft are allowed to operate under part 107 if they satisfy the requirements of part 375.
- External load operations are allowed if the object being carried by the unmanned aircraft is securely attached and does not adversely affect the flight characteristics or controllability of the aircraft.
- Transportation of property for compensation or hire allowed provided that-
- o The aircraft, including its attached systems, payload, and cargo weigh less than 55 pounds total.
- o The flight is conducted within visual line of sight and not from a moving vehicle or aircraft; and
- o The flight occurs wholly within the bounds of a state and does not involve transport between (1) Hawaii and another place in Hawaii through airspace outside Hawaii; (2) the District of Columbia and another place in the District of Columbia; or (3) a territory or possession of the United States and another place in the same territory or possession.
- Most of the restrictions discussed above are waivable if the applicant demonstrates that his or her operation can safely be conducted under the terms of a certificate of waiver.
Part 107. REMOTE PILOT IN COMMAND CERTIFICATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES.
- Establishes a remote pilot in command position.
- A person operating a small UAS must either hold a remote pilot airman certificate with a small UAS rating or be under the direct supervision of a person who does hold a remote pilot certificate (remote pilot in command).
- To qualify for a remote pilot certificate, a person must:
- o Demonstrate aeronautical knowledge by either:
Passing an initial aeronautical knowledge test at an FAA-approved knowledge testing center; or
§ Hold a part 61 pilot certificate other than student pilot, complete a flight review within the previous 24 months, and complete a small UAS online training course provided by the FAA.
- o Be vetted by the Transportation Security Administration.
- o Be at least 16 years old.
- o Demonstrate aeronautical knowledge by either:
- Part 61 pilot certificate holders may obtain a temporary remote pilot certificate immediately upon submission of their application for a permanent certificate. Other applicants will obtain a temporary remote pilot certificate upon successful completion of TSA security vetting. The FAA anticipates that it will be able to issue a temporary remote pilot certificate within 10 business days after receiving a completed remote pilot certificate application.
- Until international standards are developed, foreign- certificated UAS pilots will be required to obtain an FAA- issued remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating.
A remote pilot in command must:
- Make available to the FAA, upon request, the small UAS for inspection or testing, and any associated documents/records required to be kept under the rule.
- Report to the FAA within 10 days of any operation that results in serious injury, loss of consciousness, or property damage of at least $500.
- Conduct a preflight inspection, to include specific aircraft and control station systems checks, to ensure the small UAS is in a condition for safe operation.
- Ensure that the small unmanned aircraft complies with the existing registration requirements specified in § 91.203(a)(2).
A remote pilot in command may deviate from the requirements of this rule in response to an in-flight emergency.
Part 107. AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS.
- FAA airworthiness certification is not required. However, the remote pilot in command must conduct a preflight check of the small UAS to ensure that it is in a condition for safe operation.
Part 107. MODEL AIRCRAFT.
- Part 107 does not apply to model aircraft that satisfy all of the criteria specified in section 336 of Public Law 112-95.
- The rule codifies the FAA’s enforcement authority in part 101 by prohibiting model aircraft operators from endangering the safety of the NAS.
Appendix C – Summary of changes due to CoViD-19 pandemic in UAS CFR 14 Part 107 & Part 135 (“Coronavirus guidance & resources from FAA,” 2020)
Drone Use for Response Efforts
The FAA is enabling drone use for COVID-19 response efforts within our existing regulations and emergency procedures. Our small unmanned aircraft rule (Part 107) and Certificate of Authorization process allow operators to transport goods and certain medical supplies – including test kits, most prescription drugs and, under certain circumstances, blood – provided the flight complies with all provisions of the rule or authorization. The FAA also issues special approvals, some in less than an hour, for flights that support emergency activities and appropriate government, health, or community initiatives. The agency’s Systems Operations Support Center is available 24/7 to process emergency requests. Safety is the top consideration as we review each request.
Expanded Drone Operations
The FAA has received inquiries about expanded drone operations to respond to COVID-19. We are addressing the inquiries using our existing Part 135 on-demand certification process. Follow us on Twitter @FAADroneZone and Facebook @FAADroneZone for the latest drone news.
Relief for Certain Persons and Operations during the COVID-19 Outbreak
The FAA has published a Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) that provides regulatory relief to a wide range of people and operations affected by the COVID-19 public health emergency. The relief applies to pilots, crew members and other FAA certificate holders including some drone pilots who have been unable to comply with certain training, recency-of-experience, testing, and checking requirements due to the outbreak. It also provides relief to certain people and pilot schools who are unable to meet duration and renewal requirements, including extending the validity period of FAA medical certificates. FAA has developed FAQs (PDF) to help explain the regulatory relief.
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Kaminski, M. E. (2013, April 26). Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones and the Things They Carry. Retrieved July 2020, from SSRN: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2257080
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 After a search for this report, the authors were unable to confirm whether or not the Office of the Comptroller General of the United States National Telecommunication and Information Administration produced a report or ever requested an extension on its delivery. It would have been due to congress by late March of 2019.
 After a search for this study, the authors were unable to confirm whether or not the study was produced. The assumption is the FAA would deliver this study. It is unclear who or when this study would be expected to be delivered and to whom.
 An important omission from this summary is the exemption from this section for “the media”.
Chapter 12: Chinese Unmanned Proliferation Along New Silk Road Sea/Land routes [Carter]
Information provided by World Bank via the Green Belt and Road Initiative Center (Dahlquist E., 2017)
( International Institute for Green Finance II Central University for Finance and Economics, 2020)
|“Afghanistan||South Asia||Low income|
|Albania||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Algeria||Middle East & North Africa||Upper middle income|
|Angola||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Latin America & Caribbean||High income|
|Armenia||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Austria||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Azerbaijan||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Bahrain||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Bangladesh||South Asia||Lower middle income|
|Barbados||Latin America & Caribbean||High income|
|Belarus||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Benin||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Bolivia||Latin America & Caribbean||Lower middle income|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Brunei Darussalam||East Asia & Pacific||High income|
|Bulgaria||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Burundi||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Cabo Verde||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Cambodia||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Cameroon||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Chad||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Chile||Latin America & Caribbean||High income|
|China||East Asia & Pacific||Upper middle income|
|Cook Islands||East Asia & Pacific|
|Comoros||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Congo, Rep.||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Costa Rica||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Côte d’Ivoire||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Croatia||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Cuba||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Cyprus||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Czech Republic||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Djibouti||Middle East & North Africa||Lower middle income|
|Dominica||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Ecuador||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Egypt, Arab Rep.||Middle East & North Africa||Lower middle income|
|El Salvador||Latin America & Caribbean||Lower middle income|
|Equatorial Guinea||Sub-Saharan Africa||Upper middle income|
|Estonia||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Ethiopia||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Fiji||East Asia & Pacific||Upper middle income|
|Gabon||Sub-Saharan Africa||Upper middle income|
|Gambia, The||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Georgia||Europe & Central Asia||Lower middle income|
|Ghana||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Greece||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Grenada||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Guinea||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Guyana||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Hungary||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Indonesia||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Iran, Islamic Rep.||Middle East & North Africa||Upper middle income|
|Iraq||Middle East & North Africa||Upper middle income|
|Italy||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Jamaica||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Kazakhstan||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Kenya||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Kiribati||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Korea, Rep.||East Asia & Pacific||High income|
|Kuwait||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Kyrgyz Republic||Europe & Central Asia||Lower middle income|
|Lao PDR||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Latvia||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Lebanon||Middle East & North Africa||Upper middle income|
|Lesotho||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Liberia||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Libya||Middle East & North Africa||Upper middle income|
|Lithuania||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Luxembourg||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Madagascar||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Malaysia||East Asia & Pacific||Upper middle income|
|Maldives||South Asia||Upper middle income|
|Mali||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Malta||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Mauritania||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Micronesia, Fed. Sts.||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Moldova||Europe & Central Asia||Lower middle income|
|Mongolia||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Montenegro||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Morocco||Middle East & North Africa||Lower middle income|
|Mozambique||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Myanmar||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Namibia||Sub-Saharan Africa||Upper middle income|
|Nepal||South Asia||Low income|
|New Zealand||East Asia & Pacific||High income|
|Niger||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Nigeria||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Niue||East Asia & Pacific|
|North Macedonia||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Oman||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Pakistan||South Asia||Lower middle income|
|Panama||Latin America & Caribbean||High income|
|Papua New Guinea||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Peru||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Philippines||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Poland||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Portugal||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Qatar||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Romania||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Russian Federation||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Rwanda||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Samoa||East Asia & Pacific||Upper middle income|
|Saudi Arabia||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Senegal||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Serbia||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Seychelles||Sub-Saharan Africa||High income|
|Sierra Leone||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Singapore||East Asia & Pacific||High income|
|Slovak Republic||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Slovenia||Europe & Central Asia||High income|
|Solomon Islands||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Somalia||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|South Africa||Sub-Saharan Africa||Upper middle income|
|South Sudan||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Sri Lanka||South Asia||Lower middle income|
|Sudan||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Suriname||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Tajikistan||Europe & Central Asia||Low income|
|Tanzania||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Thailand||East Asia & Pacific||Upper middle income|
|Timor-Leste||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Togo||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Tonga||East Asia & Pacific||Upper middle income|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Latin America & Caribbean||High income|
|Tunisia||Middle East & North Africa||Lower middle income|
|Turkey||Europe & Central Asia||Upper middle income|
|Uganda||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income|
|Ukraine||Europe & Central Asia||Lower middle income|
|United Arab Emirates||Middle East & North Africa||High income|
|Uruguay||Latin America & Caribbean||High income|
|Uzbekistan||Europe & Central Asia||Lower middle income|
|Vanuatu||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Venezuela, RB||Latin America & Caribbean||Upper middle income|
|Vietnam||East Asia & Pacific||Lower middle income|
|Yemen, Rep.||Middle East & North Africa||Low income|
|Zambia||Sub-Saharan Africa||Lower middle income|
|Zimbabwe||Sub-Saharan Africa||Low income” (Dahlquist E., 2017)|
References [Chapter 12]
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Alden, C., Fiala, L., Krol, E., & Whittle, R. (2020, May 28). Wings Along the BRI: Exporting Chinese UCAVs and Security? Retrieved from Medium: https://medium.com/@lseideas/wings-along-the-bri-exporting-chinese-ucavs-and-security-a4bf7a3324df
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Calabrese, J. (2020, May 19). China’s Maritime Silk Road and the Middle East: Tacking Against the Wind. Retrieved from Middle East Institute: https://www.mei.edu/publications/chinas-maritime-silk-road-and-middle-east-tacking-against-wind
Chaziza, M. (2020, March 25). Belt and Road Initiative, BRI, Business, China, Economic Growth, Economy, Middle East. Retrieved from The Asia Dialogue: https://theasiadialogue.com/2020/03/25/chinas-partnership-diplomacy-and-the-successful-implementation-of-the-bri/
Dahlquist E., H. S. (2017). System Perspective. . In H. S. Dahlquist E., In: Dahlquist E., Hellstrand S. (eds) Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future. Springer, Cham. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54263-8_1
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Greene, R., & Triolo, P. (2020, May 8). Will China Control the Global Internet with the Digital Silk Road. Retrieved from Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/05/08/will-china-control-global-internet-via-its-digital-silk-road-pub-81857
Hamilton, C., & Ohlberg, M. (2020). Hidden Hand Exposing How the Chinese Communist Party is Reshaping the World. Richmond: Hardie Grant Books.
Harding, R. (2020, September 20). China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the Impact on the Middle East and North Africa . Retrieved from International Banker: https://internationalbanker.com/finance/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-and-its-impact-on-the-middle-east-and-north-africa/
Japan Center for Asian Historical Records. (2020, July 28). Japan Center for Asian Historic Records. Retrieved from National Archives of Japan: https://www.jacar.go.jp/english/nichiro/map.htm
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. (2019, July 27). Electronics Science & Technology Committee of MIIT. Retrieved from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology: http://www.miitestc.org.cn/uploadfile/2019/0727/20190727050055199.pdf
Pan, C. (2020, March 27). UK university study identifies Chinese drone maker XAG as best fit for disinfection operations to fight coronavirus spread. Retrieved from South China Morning Post : https://www.scmp.com/tech/gear/article/3077296/uk-university-study-identifies-chinese-drone-maker-xag-best-fit
Roblin, S. (2020, July 9). Missile-Armed Chinese Drones Arrive In Europe As Serbia Seeks Airpower Edge. Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/sebastienroblin/2020/07/09/missile-armed-chinese-drones-arrive-in-europe-for-serbian-military/#4af9aff679d2
Shi-Kupfer, K., & Ohlberg, M. (2019). China’s Digital Rise : Challenges for Europe. Berlin: Mercator Institute for China Studies.
Stevenson, B. (2019, November 17). Dubai Airshow. Retrieved from AIN Online: https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2019-11-17/uavs-continue-grow-strength-middle-east
Tybring-Gjedde, C. (2020). China’s Belt and Road Initiative: A Strategic and Economic Assessment. Brussels: Nato Economics and Security Commitee.
Xuanzun, L. (2020, June 6). PLA special mission aircraft approaches Taiwan after the island’s missile test. Retrieved from Global Times: https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1191424.shtml